update, final version before presentation

master
Harald Welte 5 years ago
parent a0ab9dea57
commit 842948b8d2
  1. 185
      2016/netdevconf-osmocom/running-foss-gsm.adoc
  2. 155
      2017/bbs_early_internet-34c3/bbs_early_internet.adoc
  3. 31
      2017/bbs_early_internet-34c3/bbs_early_internet.css
  4. 423
      2017/bbs_early_internet-34c3/bbs_early_internet.html
  5. BIN
      2017/bbs_early_internet-34c3/bbs_early_internet__1.png
  6. BIN
      2017/bbs_early_internet-34c3/images/analogm.png
  7. BIN
      2017/bbs_early_internet-34c3/images/mosaic.jpg
  8. BIN
      2017/bbs_early_internet-34c3/images/pict4_Lg.jpg
  9. BIN
      2017/bbs_early_internet-34c3/images/pots_fig10.2.png

@ -12,9 +12,8 @@ Running FOSS Cellular Networks on Linux
[role="incremental"]
* Implementing GSM/GPRS network elements as FOSS
* Applied Protocol Archeology
* Applied Protocol Archaeology
* Doing all of that on top of Linux (in userspace)
* If you expeccted kernel stuff, you'll be disappointed
== Running your own Internet-style network
@ -216,10 +215,11 @@ image::osmo-bts.svg[]
** `osmo-bts-octphy`: Octasic OCTBTS hardware / OCTSDR-2G PHY
** `osmo-bts-litecell15`: Nutaq Litecell 1.5 hardware/PHY
See separate talk about BTS hardware options later today.
== Configuring Osmocom software
* all Osmo* GSM infrastructure programs share common architecture, as
* all _native_ Osmo* GSM infrastructure programs share common architecture, as
defined by various libraries 'libosmo{core,gsm,vty,abis,netif,...}'
* part of this is configuration handling
** interactive configuration via command line interface (*vty*), similar
@ -260,6 +260,7 @@ BTS settings are configured in the BSC/NITB configuration file.
source tree / git repository
* just your usual `git clone && autoreconf -fi && ./configure && make install`
** (in reality, the `libosmo*` dependencies are required first...)
* nightly packages for Debian 8, Ubuntu 16.04 and 16.10 available
* 'OsmoNITB' runs on any Linux system, like your speakers' laptop
** you can actually also run it on the ARM/Linux of the 'sysmoBTS' itself,
having a literal 'Network In The Box' with power as only external
@ -445,7 +446,7 @@ digraph G {
PCU->SGSN [label="Gb"]
SGSN->GGSN [label="GTP"]
}
}
----
* 'PCU': Packet Control Unit. Runs RLC+MAC
@ -517,168 +518,6 @@ digraph G {
We need to configure those additional components to provide GPRS
services.
== Simplified OsmoNITB network with GPRS
image::osmocom-gprs.svg[width=750]
//* show IP addresses at nodes
//* show GSM functional elements, Osmocom programs and hardware
== Configuring OsmoPCU
We assume we have obtained and compiled the `osmo-pcu` from
git://git.osmocom.org/osmo-pcu
* 'OsmoPCU' runs co-located with 'OsmoBTS' to access/share the same PHY + Radio
* 'OsmoPCU' is primarily configured from 'OsmoBTS'
* 'OsmoBTS' receives relevant config via A-bis OML
* 'OsmoNITB' sends those OML messages to OsmoBTS
** we thus need to set the PCU configuration in the NITB config file!
== BTS config for GPRS (in OsmoNITB)
----
bts 0
gprs mode gprs <1>
gprs nsei 1234 <2>
gprs nsvc 0 nsvci 1234 <3>
gprs nsvc 0 local udp port 23000 <4>
gprs nsvc 0 remote ip 192.168.1.11 <5>
gprs nsvc 0 remote udp port 23000 <6>
----
<1> enable `gprs` or `egprs` mode
<2> NSEI for the NS protocol layer (unique for each PCU in SGSN)
<3> NSVCI for the NS protocol layer (unique for each PCU in SGSN)
<4> UDP port on PCU side of Gb connection
<5> IP address of SGSN side of Gb connection
<6> UDP port on SGSN side of Gb connection
== Configuring OsmoSGSN (Gb and GTP)
----
ns
encapsulation udp local-ip 192.168.100.11 <1>
encapsulation udp local-port 23000 <2>
sgsn
gtp local-ip 127.0.0.2 <3>
ggsn 0 remote-ip 127.0.0.1 <4>
ggsn 0 gtp-version 1 <5>
apn * ggsn 0 <6>
----
<1> SGSN-local IP address for Gb connection from PCUs
<2> SGSN-local UDP port number for Gb connection from PCUs
<3> SGSN-local IP address for GTP connection to GGSN
<4> remote IP address for GTP connection to GGSN
<5> GTP protocol version for this GGSN
<6> route all APN names to GGSN 0
== Configuring OsmoSGSN (subscribers)
'OsmoSGSN' (still) has no access to the 'OsmoNITB' HLR, thus all IMSIs
permitted to use GPRS services need to be explicitly configured.
----
sgsn
auth-policy closed <1>
imsi-acl add 262778026147135 <2>
----
<1> only allow explicitly authorized/white-listed subscribers
<2> add given IMSI to the white-list of subscribers
== Setting up OpenGGSN
In `ggsn.cfg` we need to set:
----
listen 172.0.0.1 <1>
net 10.23.24.0/24 <2>
dynip 10.23.42.0/24 <3>
pcodns1 8.8.8.8 <4>
----
<1> IP address to bind GSN to.
<2> network/mask of `tun` device
<3> pool of dynamic IP addresses allocated to PDP contexts
<4> IP address of DNS server (communicated to MS via signalling)
== Testing GPRS
* Check if `osmo-pcu`, `osmo-sgsn`, `openggsn` are running
* Check if NS and BSSGP protocols are UNBLOCKED at SGSN
** If not, check your NS/BSSGP configuration
* Check for GPRS registration using `logging level mm info` in SGSN
== Osmocom beyond GSM/GPRS RAN + NITB
* Smalltalk implementation of SIGTRAN + TCAP/MAP
* Erlang implementation of SIGTRAN + TCAP/MAP
* Lots of special-purpose protocol mangling
** `bsc-nat` to introduce NAT-like functionality on A (BSSAP/BSSMAP)
** `mgw-nat` to transparently re-write MAP/ISUP/SCCP
* GSMTAP pseudo-header for feeding non-IP protocols into wireshark
* SIM card protocol tracer hardware + software
* Lots of non-GSM projects from hardware to protocol stacks (TETRA, GMR, DECT, OP25)
* check http://git.osmocom.org/ for full project list
== So... I heard about OpenBTS?
* OpenBTS is completely unrelated to the Osmocom stack
* was independently developed by David Burgess & Harvind Simra
** Kestrel Signal Processing -> Range Networks
* doesn't follow GSM system architecture at all
** no Abis, BSC, PCU, SGSN, GGSN
* is a bridge of the GSM air interface (Um) to SIP
* Osmocom follows classic GSM interfaces / system architecture
* 'OsmoTRX' forked 'OpenBTS' SDR code to use 'OsmoBTS' with SDR hardware
== Outlook on FOSS 2.75G (EDGE)
* EDGE extends GPRS with higher data rates
** 8PSK instead of GMSK modulation
** lots of new MAC/RLC features (larger windows, incremental redundancy)
** No changes required in 'OmsoSGSN' and 'OsmoGGSN'
* 'OsmoPCU' is extended with EDGE support
* First working minimal subset published last week
== Outlook on FOSS 3G (UMTS/WCDMA)
* UMTS very similar to GSM/GPRS in principle
** still, almost every interface and protocol stack has changed
** all elements have been renamed -> more acronyms to learn
* UMTS is ridiculously complex, particular PHY + Layer 2
** however, control plane L3 (MM/CC/CM/SM/GMM) mostly the same
* Implementing all of that from scratch is a long journey
* We've already reached 'Peak 3G'
* Osmocom 3G support strategy
** Implement Iu interface in NITB and SGSN
** Implement HNB-GW to offer Iuh interface
** Use existing femtocell / small cell hardware with proprietary PHY, RLC and MAC
** Status: Started in October 2015, WIP. Overall completion > 50%.
== Outlook on FOSS 4G (LTE)
* LTE has nothing in common with 2G/3G
* various FOSS activities
** 'OpenAirInterface' has some code for a software eNodeB
*** but they switched from GPLv3 to 'non-free' license :(
** 'srsLTE' (main focus on UE side, but large parts usable for eNodeB side)
** 'OpenLTE' is another active FOSS project
* No Osmocom involvement so far
** team is small, project scope of cellular infrastructure is gigantic
** most customer funding currently still on GSM/GPRS/EDGE
** if we'd start, we'd start implementing MME + S-GW and use existing LTE cells
== The End
* so long, and thanks for all the fish
@ -688,16 +527,4 @@ pcodns1 8.8.8.8 <4>
* have fun exploring mobile technologies using Osmocom
* interested in working with more acronyms? Come join the project!
* Check out http://openbsc.osmocom.org/ and openbsc@lists.osmocom.org
== Thanks to
* Pablo for running netdevconf and inviting me
* the entire Osmocom team for what they have achieved
** notably Dieter Spaar, Holger Freyther, Andreas Eversberg, Sylvain Munaut
* last but not least: CEPT for making the GSM specs English
** (who'd want to read French specs anyway?)
* Check out https://osmocom.org/ and openbsc@lists.osmocom.org

@ -5,6 +5,19 @@ BBSs and Early Internet Access in Germany
:backend: slidy
:max-width: 45em
== Introduction
[role="incremental"]
* this is not a high-tech talk
* way fewer acronyms than in mots of my other talks
* I didn't invent any of the technologies covered
* I didn't write any of the software covered
* Just a mere user and operator/sysadming
* .. this is the world I grew up in (age 11 onwards)
[role="incremental"]
* very limited information available in literature and on the WWW
* lots of younger members of our community lack this history
== Circuit Switched Telephony
@ -17,10 +30,21 @@ BBSs and Early Internet Access in Germany
== Hardware
* Telephone
* Copper wire
* Telephone Exchange
* Copper wire[s]
* Telephone Exchange[s]
image:images/pots_fig10.2.png[width="80%"]
== Phone Charges
== Accoustic Coupler
In Germany during the 80ies and 90ies
* even local calls were metered / charged
* flat rates didn't exist
* various zones between local and long distance
* not many people could afford long distance BBSing
== Acoustic Coupler
* First devices to transmit bits as audible tones over telephone
* User manually dialled phone number like voice call
@ -30,12 +54,16 @@ image:images/accoustic_coupler.jpg[width="50%"]
== Modems
Automatization of the accoustic coupler
Automation of the acoustic coupler
* Avoid speaker/micrphone path
* Avoid _air gap_ speaker/microphone path
* directly generate/receive tones on phone line
* directly dial the phone number / answer the line
image:images/analogm.png[width="80%"]
== Modems
image:images/Modems.jpg[width="50%",float="right"]
== Modem Speeds / Standards
@ -62,6 +90,18 @@ What's a BBS?
* Computer with Modem accepting incoming calls
* offering interactive service to users who dial in
To operate a BBS, you had to have
* a separate/dedicated computer
** most BBS software predated/predates multi-tasking OSs
* running 24/7
* attached to separate / dedicated phone line
To use a BBS, you
* power your computer when using it
* can share your regular phone line with the modem
== Content
* bulletin boards / message boards
@ -75,14 +115,20 @@ image:images/dosbox-telemate-login.png[width="50%"]
== Technology/Software
* Both sides: Computer + Modem
* BBS Side
* BBS Side Software
** BBS Software
** often extended by "doors" (external programs, think of CGI for web)
* User Side
** often extended by "doors" (external programs, think of CGI in Web)
* User Side Software
** Terminal Program (e.g. TELIX, Telemate for DOS)
image:images/telemate.jpg[width="50%"]
== Demo
Time for a demo
NOTE: I'm using telnet instead of modem/dialup (POTS lines hard to find these days)
== The "BBS Protocol Stack"
@ -125,6 +171,8 @@ image:images/xpmenu.gif[width="60%"]
== BBS networks (store + forward)
As opposed to individual BBSs with isolated communities...
Idea: Replicate bulletin / message boards between independent BBSs, for
* scalability in number of users
@ -146,10 +194,10 @@ Idea: Replicate bulletin / message boards between independent BBSs, for
== Example: FIDOnet
* Starts in 1984 with two BBSs
* Initial limit of 250 nodes reached in 1985
* Hierarchic, Regoinal routing/Adressing introduced in 1986
** Nodelist defines all nodes of the network + hierarchy
* Addresses like "Harald Welte @ 2:2490/1343"
* Initial technological limit of 250 nodes reached in 1985
* Hierarchic, Regional routing/Addressing introduced in 1986
** _Nodelist_ defines all nodes of the network + hierarchy
* Addresses like *Harald Welte @ 2:2490/1343*
* Up to 39,000 nodes in 1996, estimated 2 Million users world-wide
== Example: Z-Netz
@ -158,22 +206,25 @@ Idea: Replicate bulletin / message boards between independent BBSs, for
* Later renamed to Z-Netz as the ZConnect protocol was implemented in other software
** Standards defined based on perceived complexity of RFCs and Usenet/UUCP
* CrossPoint (DOS) most popular point software for ZConnect
* Addresses like H.WELTE@SILVER, later H.WELTE@SILVER.zer
* Addresses like *H.WELTE@SILVER*, later *H.WELTE@SILVER.zer*
== Example: UseNet
* Established in 1980 in the US
* Uses UUCP (Unix-to-Unix-Copy) as transport mechanism over Modmes
** UUCP was created in the 1970ies and used to copy files, including Internet Mal
* Uses UUCP (Unix-to-Unix-Copy) as transport mechanism over Modems
** UUCP was created in the 1970ies and used to copy files, including Internet Mail
* Usenet News format (RFC850) designed very similar to Internet Mail (RFC822)
* Hierarchy of News Groups that gets replicated / flooded accross the network
* Hierarchy of News Groups that gets replicated / flooded across the network, e.g.
** comp.* — Discussion of computer-related topics like ``comp.lang.c++''
** sci.* — Discussion of scientific subjects
* Routing defined in route maps
== Curiosity: Floppy Poll/Point
[role="incremental"]
* Not everyone had a phone line in the 1990ies
** particularly Eastern Germany had big lack of phone lines
* Some people thus exchanged daily floppies in evenlopes and mailed them as postal letters
* Some people thus exchanged daily floppies in envelopes and mailed them as postal letters
* Messages arrived about one day later, but with 1-2 days latency even inside the dial-up store-and-forward network, it hardly matters
image:images/floppy-disk-1219954_640.png[width="30%"]
@ -196,7 +247,24 @@ Early ways to access Internet:
* if you had dial-up access to a Unix box
* you could run SLIP on both sides, transporting IP over the modem line
** IP. At home. In your apartment !!1!
** Result: IP. At home. In your apartment !!1!
* later superseded by PPP (auto-configuration, authentication, compression, ...)
Popular software stack looked like:
* Windows 3.11 + Trumpet Winsock (Windows didn't have TCP/IP!)
* NCSA Mosaic as web-1.0 browser (1993 onwards)
image:images/mosaic.jpg[]
== Internet on PCs before Linux
* if you didn't have a 386 or if Linux didn't exist yet
* there was KA9Q NOS
** Implementation of TCP/IP, SLIP, PPP for CP/M and DOS
** POP3 + SMTP server + client, IP routing, telnet, ARP, etc.
* you could run SLIP on both sides, transporting IP over the modem line
** Result: IP. At home. In your apartment !!1!
* later superseded by PPP (auto-configuration, authentication, compression, ...)
@ -225,7 +293,7 @@ image:images/isdn.jpg[width="50%"]
* Hard to access in early/mid 1990ies outside of academia
* Almost no commercial ISPs (XLink, EUnet) - and very expensive
* Grass-Roots groups of enthusiasts established themselves
* Kommunikationsnetz Franken e.V. (KNF, franken.de) one of them
* Kommunikationsnetz Franken e.V. (KNF, ``franken.de'') one of them
** dial-up UUCP and shortly later IP for personal, non-commercial users
** POPs in Nürnberg, Fürth, Erlangen, Forchheim, Würzburg, Regensburg, ...
** Every user got 6 static IP addresses routed to wherever he dialed in (OSPF!)
@ -240,7 +308,7 @@ image:images/isdn.jpg[width="50%"]
** IN members served more than 300,000 users at one point
** Dissolved in 2000, when
*** commercial ISPs were widespread, and
*** remaining IN member organizations could get decend connectivity with IN e.V.
*** remaining IN member organizations could get decent connectivity with IN e.V.
== Internet
@ -254,10 +322,10 @@ This brought new purpose to leased lines
== Analog Leased Lines
* Telephone operator permanently interconnects wires at exchange
* No signaling (dialtone/ringtone etc)
* No signaling (dial tone, ring tone etc)
* Requires modems with special capabilities
** ATA without an incoming ring first
** ATD without a dialtone first
** ATD without a dial tone first
* In Germany: "Analog G" of Post/Telekom
** I finally could afford one in 1998
** 900 DM installation cost
@ -267,12 +335,16 @@ This brought new purpose to leased lines
image:images/pict3_Lg.jpg[]
== hub-nbg.franken.de, 1998
image:images/pict4_Lg.jpg[]
== ISDN Leased Lines "SPV"
* Not really a leased line
* Basically only "flat rate calls" to one specific (fixed) destination
* Available in national 1TR6 only
** some of them operated until 2006
== Abusing Analog Lines, Part 1
@ -287,7 +359,7 @@ Easy upgrade to get performance of a leased ISDN line out of an Analog-G
[graphviz]
----
include::images/knf-leased_lines.dot[]
include::images/knf-leased_lines.dot[width="100%"]
----
== hub-fue.franken.de, undated
@ -300,10 +372,10 @@ image:images/hub-fue-04_Lg.jpg[]
== Abusing Analog Lines, Part 2
When the first DSL modems became availale in the US
When the first DSL modems became available in the US
* we imported some Ascend DSLpipe
* with some fimrwares, they could be used back-to-back (without DSLAM)
* with some firmwares, they could be used back-to-back (without DSLAM)
* suddenly we could get speeds of 2.3 MBps over analog lines
** if they were not too long
** if they didn't have in-line inductors
@ -324,11 +396,25 @@ image:images/ascend.jpg[width="50%"]
** ISDN SPV was used as Internet uplink
== Summary
* The first decade[s] of wide-area electronics communications
** were powered by a community of enthusiasts
** largely motivated by non-commercial motives
** without much corporate or government influence
* BBS community / culture is a distinct sub-culture.
** different norms than HAM radio, Hackers, Free Software, but some of overlap
== Conclusions
* The first decade[s] of wide-area electronics communications was powered by a community of enthusiasts
* BBS community / culture is a distinct sub-culture. Different norms than HAM radio, Hackers, Free Software, but lots of overlap
In the BBS days
* networks were distributed, without single point of failure
* infrastructure **owned and operated by its users**
* connection speeds were largely symmetric
* no data center vs. consumer separation with asymmetric speeds
This autonomy and de-centralization has been lost in the Internet age
== Further Reading
@ -338,9 +424,22 @@ image:images/ascend.jpg[width="50%"]
** FOSS multi-platform terminal program
* http://artscene.textfiles.com/ansi/
** Archive of ANSI Artwork
* https://artpacks.org/
** Another Archive of ANSI Artwork
* http://www.filegate.net/nodelist/
** FIDO nodelist of 2017
* http://www.ka9q.net/code/ka9qnos/
** Phil Karn's page on KA9Q NOS
== Thanks
* my uncle for giving me his old Olivetti acoustic coupler in 1990
* Josef Groll, SysOp of SILVER.zer / SILVER.nbg.sub.org
* Max Riegel, Martin Bokaemper, Joerg Kinzebach and KNF crew
* Reinhold "unhold" Pretscher for Falken's Maze
* All sotware developers of BBS related software
* All SysOps that made the BBS community possible
== EOF
End of File
NO CARRIER

@ -0,0 +1,31 @@
div.change_topic {
display: flex;
align-items: center;
justify-content: center;
}
div.change_topic h1 {
text-align: center;
border-bottom-width: 0px;
}
div.gimmick_right img {
float: right;
}
div.qanda ol {
list-style-type: none;
}
.monospaced, code, pre {
color: black;
font-weight: bold;
}
div.quoteblock, div.verseblock {
color: black;
}
em {
color: black;
}

@ -3869,6 +3869,53 @@ setTimeout(w3c_slidy.hide_slides, 50);
<span id="author">Harald Welte &lt;laforge@gnumonks.org&gt;</span><br />
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_introduction">Introduction</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<ul class=" incremental">
<li>
<span>
this is not a high-tech talk
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
way fewer acronyms than in mots of my other talks
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
I didn&#8217;t invent any of the technologies covered
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
I didn&#8217;t write any of the software covered
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
Just a mere user and operator/sysadming
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
.. this is the world I grew up in (age 11 onwards)
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
very limited information available in literature and on the WWW
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
lots of younger members of our community lack this history
</span>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide incremental">
<h1 id="_circuit_switched_telephony">Circuit Switched Telephony</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<ul class="">
@ -3911,19 +3958,50 @@ Telephone
</li>
<li>
<span>
Copper wire
Copper wire[s]
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
Telephone Exchange
Telephone Exchange[s]
</span>
</li>
</ul>
<div class="paragraph"><p><span class="image">
<img src="images/pots_fig10.2.png" alt="images/pots_fig10.2.png" width="80%" />
</span></p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_phone_charges">Phone Charges</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<div class="paragraph"><p>In Germany during the 80ies and 90ies</p></div>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
even local calls were metered / charged
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
flat rates didn&#8217;t exist
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
various zones between local and long distance
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
not many people could afford long distance BBSing
</span>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_accoustic_coupler">Accoustic Coupler</h1>
<h1 id="_acoustic_coupler">Acoustic Coupler</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<ul class="">
<li>
@ -3950,11 +4028,11 @@ After call was established, both sides put receiver into coupler
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_modems">Modems</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<div class="paragraph"><p>Automatization of the accoustic coupler</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Automation of the acoustic coupler</p></div>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
Avoid speaker/micrphone path
Avoid <em>air gap</em> speaker/microphone path
</span>
</li>
<li>
@ -3969,6 +4047,14 @@ directly dial the phone number / answer the line
</li>
</ul>
<div class="paragraph"><p><span class="image">
<img src="images/analogm.png" alt="images/analogm.png" width="80%" />
</span></p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_modems_2">Modems</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<div class="paragraph"><p><span class="image">
<img src="images/Modems.jpg" alt="images/Modems.jpg" width="50%" />
</span></p></div>
</div>
@ -4058,6 +4144,44 @@ offering interactive service to users who dial in
</span>
</li>
</ul>
<div class="paragraph"><p>To operate a BBS, you had to have</p></div>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
a separate/dedicated computer
</span>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
most BBS software predated/predates multi-tasking OSs
</span>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>
<span>
running 24/7
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
attached to separate / dedicated phone line
</span>
</li>
</ul>
<div class="paragraph"><p>To use a BBS, you</p></div>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
power your computer when using it
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
can share your regular phone line with the modem
</span>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
@ -4106,7 +4230,7 @@ Both sides: Computer + Modem
</li>
<li>
<span>
BBS Side
BBS Side Software
</span>
<ul class="">
<li>
@ -4116,14 +4240,14 @@ BBS Software
</li>
<li>
<span>
often extended by "doors" (external programs, think of CGI for web)
often extended by "doors" (external programs, think of CGI in Web)
</span>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>
<span>
User Side
User Side Software
</span>
<ul class="">
<li>
@ -4140,6 +4264,20 @@ Terminal Program (e.g. TELIX, Telemate for DOS)
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_demo">Demo</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<div class="paragraph"><p>Time for a demo</p></div>
<div class="admonitionblock">
<table><tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">I&#8217;m using telnet instead of modem/dialup (POTS lines hard to find these days)</td>
</tr></table>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_the_bbs_protocol_stack">The "BBS Protocol Stack"</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<div class="paragraph"><p>In the spirit of protocol stack diagrams&#8230;</p></div>
@ -4256,6 +4394,7 @@ BBS can scale to more users this way
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_bbs_networks_store_forward">BBS networks (store + forward)</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<div class="paragraph"><p>As opposed to individual BBSs with isolated communities&#8230;</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Idea: Replicate bulletin / message boards between independent BBSs, for</p></div>
<ul class="">
<li>
@ -4349,24 +4488,24 @@ Starts in 1984 with two BBSs
</li>
<li>
<span>
Initial limit of 250 nodes reached in 1985
Initial technological limit of 250 nodes reached in 1985
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
Hierarchic, Regoinal routing/Adressing introduced in 1986
Hierarchic, Regional routing/Addressing introduced in 1986
</span>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
Nodelist defines all nodes of the network + hierarchy
<em>Nodelist</em> defines all nodes of the network + hierarchy
</span>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>
<span>
Addresses like "Harald Welte @ 2:2490/1343"
Addresses like <strong>Harald Welte @ 2:2490/1343</strong>
</span>
</li>
<li>
@ -4405,7 +4544,7 @@ CrossPoint (DOS) most popular point software for ZConnect
</li>
<li>
<span>
Addresses like <a href="mailto:H.WELTE@SILVER">H.WELTE@SILVER</a>, later <a href="mailto:H.WELTE@SILVER.zer">H.WELTE@SILVER.zer</a>
Addresses like <strong>H.WELTE@SILVER</strong>, later <strong>H.WELTE@SILVER.zer</strong>
</span>
</li>
</ul>
@ -4422,12 +4561,12 @@ Established in 1980 in the US
</li>
<li>
<span>
Uses UUCP (Unix-to-Unix-Copy) as transport mechanism over Modmes
Uses UUCP (Unix-to-Unix-Copy) as transport mechanism over Modems
</span>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
UUCP was created in the 1970ies and used to copy files, including Internet Mal
UUCP was created in the 1970ies and used to copy files, including Internet Mail
</span>
</li>
</ul>
@ -4439,9 +4578,21 @@ Usenet News format (RFC850) designed very similar to Internet Mail (RFC822)
</li>
<li>
<span>
Hierarchy of News Groups that gets replicated / flooded accross the network
Hierarchy of News Groups that gets replicated / flooded across the network, e.g.
</span>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
comp.* — Discussion of computer-related topics like &#8220;comp.lang.c++&#8221;
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
sci.* — Discussion of scientific subjects
</span>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>
<span>
Routing defined in route maps
@ -4453,7 +4604,7 @@ Routing defined in route maps
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_curiosity_floppy_poll_point">Curiosity: Floppy Poll/Point</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<ul class="">
<ul class=" incremental">
<li>
<span>
Not everyone had a phone line in the 1990ies
@ -4468,7 +4619,7 @@ particularly Eastern Germany had big lack of phone lines
</li>
<li>
<span>
Some people thus exchanged daily floppies in evenlopes and mailed them as postal letters
Some people thus exchanged daily floppies in envelopes and mailed them as postal letters
</span>
</li>
<li>
@ -4555,7 +4706,69 @@ you could run SLIP on both sides, transporting IP over the modem line
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
IP. At home. In your apartment !!1!
Result: IP. At home. In your apartment !!1!
</span>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>
<span>
later superseded by PPP (auto-configuration, authentication, compression, &#8230;)
</span>
</li>
</ul>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Popular software stack looked like:</p></div>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
Windows 3.11 + Trumpet Winsock (Windows didn&#8217;t have TCP/IP!)
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
NCSA Mosaic as web-1.0 browser (1993 onwards)
</span>
</li>
</ul>
<div class="paragraph"><p><span class="image">
<img src="images/mosaic.jpg" alt="images/mosaic.jpg" />
</span></p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_internet_on_pcs_before_linux">Internet on PCs before Linux</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
if you didn&#8217;t have a 386 or if Linux didn&#8217;t exist yet
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
there was KA9Q NOS
</span>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
Implementation of TCP/IP, SLIP, PPP for CP/M and DOS
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
POP3 + SMTP server + client, IP routing, telnet, ARP, etc.
</span>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>
<span>
you could run SLIP on both sides, transporting IP over the modem line
</span>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
Result: IP. At home. In your apartment !!1!
</span>
</li>
</ul>
@ -4670,7 +4883,7 @@ Grass-Roots groups of enthusiasts established themselves
</li>
<li>
<span>
Kommunikationsnetz Franken e.V. (KNF, franken.de) one of them
Kommunikationsnetz Franken e.V. (KNF, &#8220;franken.de&#8221;) one of them
</span>
<ul class="">
<li>
@ -4739,7 +4952,7 @@ commercial ISPs were widespread, and
</li>
<li>
<span>
remaining IN member organizations could get decend connectivity with IN e.V.
remaining IN member organizations could get decent connectivity with IN e.V.
</span>
</li>
</ul>
@ -4779,7 +4992,7 @@ Telephone operator permanently interconnects wires at exchange
</li>
<li>
<span>
No signaling (dialtone/ringtone etc)
No signaling (dial tone, ring tone etc)
</span>
</li>
<li>
@ -4794,7 +5007,7 @@ ATA without an incoming ring first
</li>
<li>
<span>
ATD without a dialtone first
ATD without a dial tone first
</span>
</li>
</ul>
@ -4833,6 +5046,14 @@ I finally could afford one in 1998
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_hub_nbg_franken_de_1998_2">hub-nbg.franken.de, 1998</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<div class="paragraph"><p><span class="image">
<img src="images/pict4_Lg.jpg" alt="images/pict4_Lg.jpg" />
</span></p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_isdn_leased_lines_spv">ISDN Leased Lines "SPV"</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<ul class="">
@ -4850,6 +5071,13 @@ Basically only "flat rate calls" to one specific (fixed) destination
<span>
Available in national 1TR6 only
</span>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
some of them operated until 2006
</span>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
@ -4903,9 +5131,17 @@ Special ISDN routers without signaling to use even 16k D-channel for data!
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_hub_fue_franken_de_undated_2">hub-fue.franken.de, undated</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<div class="paragraph"><p><span class="image">
<img src="images/hub-fue-04_Lg.jpg" alt="images/hub-fue-04_Lg.jpg" />
</span></p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_abusing_analog_lines_part_2">Abusing Analog Lines, Part 2</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<div class="paragraph"><p>When the first DSL modems became availale in the US</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When the first DSL modems became available in the US</p></div>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
@ -4914,7 +5150,7 @@ we imported some Ascend DSLpipe
</li>
<li>
<span>
with some fimrwares, they could be used back-to-back (without DSLAM)
with some firmwares, they could be used back-to-back (without DSLAM)
</span>
</li>
<li>
@ -4990,12 +5226,53 @@ people started to dial into CompuServe, AOL, etc.
</li>
<li>
<span>
Internet became more popluar, Falken&#8217;s Maze started subsidiary in Nuernberg
Internet became more popular, Falken&#8217;s Maze started subsidiary in Nuernberg
</span>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
ISDN SPV was used as Internet uplink
</span>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_summary">Summary</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
The first decade[s] of wide-area electronics communications
</span>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
were powered by a community of enthusiasts
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
largely motivated by non-commercial motives
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
without much corporate or government influence
</span>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>
<span>
BBS community / culture is a distinct sub-culture.
</span>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
ISDN SPV was used as Intenret uplink
different norms than HAM radio, Hackers, Free Software, but some of overlap
</span>
</li>
</ul>
@ -5004,6 +5281,35 @@ ISDN SPV was used as Intenret uplink
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_conclusions">Conclusions</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<div class="paragraph"><p>In the BBS days</p></div>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
networks were distributed, without single point of failure
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
infrastructure <strong>owned and operated by its users</strong>
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
connection speeds were largely symmetric
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
no data center vs. consumer separation with asymmetric speeds
</span>
</li>
</ul>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This autonomy and de-centralization has been lost in the Internet age</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_further_reading">Further Reading</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<ul class="">
@ -5045,6 +5351,18 @@ Archive of ANSI Artwork
</li>
<li>
<span>
<a href="https://artpacks.org/">https://artpacks.org/</a>
</span>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
Another Archive of ANSI Artwork
</span>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>
<span>
<a href="http://www.filegate.net/nodelist/">http://www.filegate.net/nodelist/</a>
</span>
<ul class="">
@ -5055,13 +5373,62 @@ FIDO nodelist of 2017
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>
<span>
<a href="http://www.ka9q.net/code/ka9qnos/">http://www.ka9q.net/code/ka9qnos/</a>
</span>
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
Phil Karn&#8217;s page on KA9Q NOS
</span>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_thanks">Thanks</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<ul class="">
<li>
<span>
my uncle for giving me his old Olivetti acoustic coupler in 1990
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
Josef Groll, SysOp of SILVER.zer / SILVER.nbg.sub.org
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
Max Riegel, Martin Bokaemper, Joerg Kinzebach and KNF crew
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
Reinhold "unhold" Pretscher for Falken&#8217;s Maze
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
All sotware developers of BBS related software
</span>
</li>
<li>
<span>
All SysOps that made the BBS community possible
</span>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1 slide">
<h1 id="_eof">EOF</h1>
<div class="sectionbody" style="max-width:45em">
<div class="paragraph"><p>End of File</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>NO CARRIER</p></div>
</div>
</div>
</body>

Binary file not shown.

After

Width:  |  Height:  |  Size: 63 KiB

Binary file not shown.

After

Width:  |  Height:  |  Size: 84 KiB

Binary file not shown.

After

Width:  |  Height:  |  Size: 58 KiB

Binary file not shown.

After

Width:  |  Height:  |  Size: 201 KiB

Binary file not shown.

After

Width:  |  Height:  |  Size: 107 KiB

Loading…
Cancel
Save