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- A new default configuration file layout is introduced. The new default
strongswan.conf file mainly includes config snippets from the strongswan.d
and strongswan.d/charon directories (the latter containing snippets for all
plugins). The snippets, with commented defaults, are automatically
generated and installed, if they don't exist yet. They are also installed
in $prefix/share/strongswan/templates so existing files can be compared to
the current defaults.
- As an alternative to the non-extensible charon.load setting, the plugins
to load in charon (and optionally other applications) can now be determined
via the charon.plugins.<name>.load setting for each plugin (enabled in the
new default strongswan.conf file via the charon.load_modular option).
The load setting optionally takes a numeric priority value that allows
reordering the plugins (otherwise the default plugin order is preserved).
- All strongswan.conf settings that were formerly defined in library specific
"global" sections are now application specific (e.g. settings for plugins in
libstrongswan.plugins can now be set only for charon in charon.plugins).
The old options are still supported, which now allows to define defaults for
all applications in the libstrongswan section.
- The ntru libstrongswan plugin supports NTRUEncrypt as a post-quantum
computer IKE key exchange mechanism. The implementation is based on the
ntru-crypto library from the NTRUOpenSourceProject. The supported security
strengths are ntru112, ntru128, ntru192, and ntru256. Since the private DH
group IDs 1030..1033 have been assigned, the strongSwan Vendor ID must be
sent (charon.send_vendor_id = yes) in order to use NTRU.
- Defined a TPMRA remote attestation workitem and added support for it to the
Attestation IMV.
- Compatibility issues between IPComp (compress=yes) and leftfirewall=yes as
well as multiple subnets in left|rightsubnet have been fixed.
- When enabling its "session" strongswan.conf option, the xauth-pam plugin opens
and closes a PAM session for each established IKE_SA. Patch courtesy of
Andrea Bonomi.
- The strongSwan unit testing framework has been rewritten without the "check"
dependency for improved flexibility and portability. It now properly supports
multi-threaded and memory leak testing and brings a bunch of new test cases.
- Fixed a denial-of-service vulnerability and potential authorization bypass
triggered by a crafted ID_DER_ASN1_DN ID payload. The cause is an insufficient
length check when comparing such identities. The vulnerability has been
registered as CVE-2013-6075.
- Fixed a denial-of-service vulnerability triggered by a crafted IKEv1
fragmentation payload. The cause is a NULL pointer dereference. The
vulnerability has been registered as CVE-2013-6076.
- The lean stand-alone pt-tls-client can set up a RFC 6876 PT-TLS session
with a strongSwan policy enforcement point which uses the tnc-pdp charon
- The new TCG TNC SWID IMC/IMV pair supports targeted SWID requests for either
full SWID Tag or concise SWID Tag ID inventories.
- The XAuth backend in eap-radius now supports multiple XAuth exchanges for
different credential types and display messages. All user input gets
concatenated and verified with a single User-Password RADIUS attribute on
the AAA. With an AAA supporting it, one for example can implement
Password+Token authentication with proper dialogs on iOS and OS X clients.
- charon supports IKEv1 Mode Config exchange in push mode. The ipsec.conf
modeconfig=push option enables it for both client and server, the same way
as pluto used it.
- Using the "ah" ipsec.conf keyword on both IKEv1 and IKEv2 connections,
charon can negotiate and install Security Associations integrity-protected by
the Authentication Header protocol. Supported are plain AH(+IPComp) SAs only,
but not the deprecated RFC2401 style ESP+AH bundles.
- The generation of initialization vectors for IKE and ESP (when using libipsec)
is now modularized and IVs for e.g. AES-GCM are now correctly allocated
sequentially, while other algorithms like AES-CBC still use random IVs.
- The left and right options in ipsec.conf can take multiple address ranges
and subnets. This allows connection matching against a larger set of
addresses, for example to use a different connection for clients connecting
from a internal network.
- For all those who have a queasy feeling about the NIST elliptic curve set,
the Brainpool curves introduced for use with IKE by RFC 6932 might be a
more trustworthy alternative.
- The kernel-libipsec userland IPsec backend now supports usage statistics,
volume based rekeying and accepts ESPv3 style TFC padded packets.
- With two new strongswan.conf options fwmarks can be used to implement
host-to-host tunnels with kernel-libipsec.
- load-tester supports transport mode connections and more complex traffic
selectors, including such using unique ports for each tunnel.
- The new dnscert plugin provides support for authentication via CERT RRs that
are protected via DNSSEC. The plugin was created by Ruslan N. Marchenko.
- The eap-radius plugin supports forwarding of several Cisco Unity specific
RADIUS attributes in corresponding configuration payloads.
- Database transactions are now abstracted and implemented by the two backends.
If you use MySQL make sure all tables use the InnoDB engine.
- libstrongswan now can provide an experimental custom implementation of the
printf family functions based on klibc if neither Vstr nor glibc style printf
hooks are available. This can avoid the Vstr dependency on some systems at
the cost of slower and less complete printf functions.
- Fixed a denial-of-service vulnerability triggered by specific XAuth usernames
and EAP identities (since 5.0.3), and PEM files (since 4.1.11). The crash
was caused by insufficient error handling in the is_asn1() function.
The vulnerability has been registered as CVE-2013-5018.
- The new charon-cmd command line IKE client can establish road warrior
connections using IKEv1 or IKEv2 with different authentication profiles.
It does not depend on any configuration files and can be configured using a
few simple command line options.
- The kernel-pfroute networking backend has been greatly improved. It now
can install virtual IPs on TUN devices on OS X and FreeBSD, allowing these
systems to act as a client in common road warrior scenarios.
- The new kernel-libipsec plugin uses TUN devices and libipsec to provide IPsec
processing in userland on Linux, FreeBSD and Mac OS X.
- The eap-radius plugin can now serve as an XAuth backend called xauth-radius,
directly verifying XAuth credentials using RADIUS User-Name/User-Password
attributes. This is more efficient than the existing xauth-eap+eap-radius
combination, and allows RADIUS servers without EAP support to act as AAA
backend for IKEv1.
- The new osx-attr plugin installs configuration attributes (currently DNS
servers) via SystemConfiguration on Mac OS X. The keychain plugin provides
certificates from the OS X keychain service.
- The sshkey plugin parses SSH public keys, which, together with the --agent
option for charon-cmd, allows the use of ssh-agent for authentication.
To configure SSH keys in ipsec.conf the left|rightrsasigkey options are
replaced with left|rightsigkey, which now take public keys in one of three
formats: SSH (RFC 4253, ssh: prefix), DNSKEY (RFC 3110, dns: prefix), and
PKCS#1 (the default, no prefix).
- Extraction of certificates and private keys from PKCS#12 files is now provided
by the new pkcs12 plugin or the openssl plugin. charon-cmd (--p12) as well
as charon (via P12 token in ipsec.secrets) can make use of this.
- IKEv2 can now negotiate transport mode and IPComp in NAT situations.
- IKEv2 exchange initiators now properly close an established IKE or CHILD_SA
on error conditions using an additional exchange, keeping state in sync
between peers.
- Using a SQL database interface a Trusted Network Connect (TNC) Policy Manager
can generate specific measurement workitems for an arbitrary number of
Integrity Measurement Verifiers (IMVs) based on the history of the VPN user
and/or device.
- Several core classes in libstrongswan are now tested with unit tests. These
can be enabled with --enable-unit-tests and run with 'make check'. Coverage
reports can be generated with --enable-coverage and 'make coverage' (this
disables any optimization, so it should not be enabled when building
production releases).
- The leak-detective developer tool has been greatly improved. It works much
faster/stabler with multiple threads, does not use deprecated malloc hooks
anymore and has been ported to OS X.
- chunk_hash() is now based on SipHash-2-4 with a random key. This provides
better distribution and prevents hash flooding attacks when used with
- All default plugins implement the get_features() method to define features
and their dependencies. The plugin loader has been improved, so that plugins
in a custom load statement can be ordered freely or to express preferences
without being affected by dependencies between plugin features.
- A centralized thread can take care for watching multiple file descriptors
concurrently. This removes the need for a dedicated listener threads in
various plugins. The number of "reserved" threads for such tasks has been
reduced to about five, depending on the plugin configuration.
- Plugins that can be controlled by a UNIX socket IPC mechanism gained network
transparency. Third party applications querying these plugins now can use
TCP connections from a different host.
- libipsec now supports AES-GCM.
- Fixed a security vulnerability in the openssl plugin which was reported by
Kevin Wojtysiak. The vulnerability has been registered as CVE-2013-2944.
Before the fix, if the openssl plugin's ECDSA signature verification was used,
due to a misinterpretation of the error code returned by the OpenSSL
ECDSA_verify() function, an empty or zeroed signature was accepted as a
legitimate one.
- The handling of a couple of other non-security relevant openssl return codes
was fixed as well.
- The tnc_ifmap plugin now publishes virtual IPv4 and IPv6 addresses via its
TCG TNC IF-MAP 2.1 interface.
- The charon.initiator_only option causes charon to ignore IKE initiation
- The openssl plugin can now use the openssl-fips library.
- The new ipseckey plugin enables authentication based on trustworthy public
keys stored as IPSECKEY resource records in the DNS and protected by DNSSEC.
To do so it uses a DNSSEC enabled resolver, like the one provided by the new
unbound plugin, which is based on libldns and libunbound. Both plugins were
created by Reto Guadagnini.
- Implemented the TCG TNC IF-IMV 1.4 draft making access requestor identities
available to an IMV. The OS IMV stores the AR identity together with the
device ID in the attest database.
- The openssl plugin now uses the AES-NI accelerated version of AES-GCM
if the hardware supports it.
- The eap-radius plugin can now assign virtual IPs to IKE clients using the
Framed-IP-Address attribute by using the "%radius" named pool in the
rightsourceip ipsec.conf option. Cisco Banner attributes are forwarded to
Unity-capable IKEv1 clients during mode config. charon now sends Interim
Accounting updates if requested by the RADIUS server, reports
sent/received packets in Accounting messages, and adds a Terminate-Cause
to Accounting-Stops.
- The recently introduced "ipsec listcounters" command can report connection
specific counters by passing a connection name, and global or connection
counters can be reset by the "ipsec resetcounters" command.
- The strongSwan libpttls library provides an experimental implementation of
PT-TLS (RFC 6876), a Posture Transport Protocol over TLS.
- The charon systime-fix plugin can disable certificate lifetime checks on
embedded systems if the system time is obviously out of sync after bootup.
Certificates lifetimes get checked once the system time gets sane, closing
or reauthenticating connections using expired certificates.
- The "ikedscp" ipsec.conf option can set DiffServ code points on outgoing
IKE packets.
- The new xauth-noauth plugin allows to use basic RSA or PSK authentication with
clients that cannot be configured without XAuth authentication. The plugin
simply concludes the XAuth exchange successfully without actually performing
any authentication. Therefore, to use this backend it has to be selected
explicitly with rightauth2=xauth-noauth.
- The new charon-tkm IKEv2 daemon delegates security critical operations to a
separate process. This has the benefit that the network facing daemon has no
knowledge of keying material used to protect child SAs. Thus subverting
charon-tkm does not result in the compromise of cryptographic keys.
The extracted functionality has been implemented from scratch in a minimal TCB
(trusted computing base) in the Ada programming language. Further information
can be found at
- Implemented all IETF Standard PA-TNC attributes and an OS IMC/IMV
pair using them to transfer operating system information.
- The new "ipsec listcounters" command prints a list of global counter values
about received and sent IKE messages and rekeyings.
- A new lookip plugin can perform fast lookup of tunnel information using a
clients virtual IP and can send notifications about established or deleted
tunnels. The "ipsec lookip" command can be used to query such information
or receive notifications.
- The new error-notify plugin catches some common error conditions and allows
an external application to receive notifications for them over a UNIX socket.
- IKE proposals can now use a PRF algorithm different to that defined for
integrity protection. If an algorithm with a "prf" prefix is defined
explicitly (such as prfsha1 or prfsha256), no implicit PRF algorithm based on
the integrity algorithm is added to the proposal.
- The pkcs11 plugin can now load leftcert certificates from a smartcard for a
specific ipsec.conf conn section and cacert CA certificates for a specific ca
- The load-tester plugin gained additional options for certificate generation
and can load keys and multiple CA certificates from external files. It can
install a dedicated outer IP address for each tunnel and tunnel initiation
batches can be triggered and monitored externally using the
"ipsec load-tester" tool.
- PKCS#7 container parsing has been modularized, and the openssl plugin
gained an alternative implementation to decrypt and verify such files.
In contrast to our own DER parser, OpenSSL can handle BER files, which is
required for interoperability of our scepclient with EJBCA.
- Support for the proprietary IKEv1 fragmentation extension has been added.
Fragments are always handled on receipt but only sent if supported by the peer
and if enabled with the new fragmentation ipsec.conf option.
- IKEv1 in charon can now parse certificates received in PKCS#7 containers and
supports NAT traversal as used by Windows clients. Patches courtesy of
Volker Rümelin.
- The new rdrand plugin provides a high quality / high performance random
source using the Intel rdrand instruction found on Ivy Bridge processors.
- The integration test environment was updated and now uses KVM and reproducible
guest images based on Debian.
- Introduced the sending of the standard IETF Assessment Result
PA-TNC attribute by all strongSwan Integrity Measurement Verifiers.
- Extended PTS Attestation IMC/IMV pair to provide full evidence of
the Linux IMA measurement process. All pertinent file information
of a Linux OS can be collected and stored in an SQL database.
- The PA-TNC and PB-TNC protocols can now process huge data payloads
>64 kB by distributing PA-TNC attributes over multiple PA-TNC messages
and these messages over several PB-TNC batches. As long as no
consolidated recommandation from all IMVs can be obtained, the TNC
server requests more client data by sending an empty SDATA batch.
- The rightgroups2 ipsec.conf option can require group membership during
a second authentication round, for example during XAuth authentication
against a RADIUS server.
- The xauth-pam backend can authenticate IKEv1 XAuth and Hybrid authenticated
clients against any PAM service. The IKEv2 eap-gtc plugin does not use
PAM directly anymore, but can use any XAuth backend to verify credentials,
including xauth-pam.
- The new unity plugin brings support for some parts of the IKEv1 Cisco Unity
Extension. As client, charon narrows traffic selectors to the received
Split-Include attributes and automatically installs IPsec bypass policies
for received Local-LAN attributes. As server, charon sends Split-Include
attributes for leftsubnet definitions containing multiple subnets to Unity-
aware clients.
- An EAP-Nak payload is returned by clients if the gateway requests an EAP
method that the client does not support. Clients can also request a specific
EAP method by configuring that method with leftauth.
- The eap-dynamic plugin handles EAP-Nak payloads returned by clients and uses
these to select a different EAP method supported/requested by the client.
The plugin initially requests the first registered method or the first method
configured with charon.plugins.eap-dynamic.preferred.
- The new left/rightdns options specify connection specific DNS servers to
request/respond in IKEv2 configuration payloads or IKEv2 mode config. leftdns
can be any (comma separated) combination of %config4 and %config6 to request
multiple servers, both for IPv4 and IPv6. rightdns takes a list of DNS server
IP addresses to return.
- The left/rightsourceip options now accept multiple addresses or pools.
leftsourceip can be any (comma separated) combination of %config4, %config6
or fixed IP addresses to request. rightsourceip accepts multiple explicitly
specified or referenced named pools.
- Multiple connections can now share a single address pool when they use the
same definition in one of the rightsourceip pools.
- The options charon.interfaces_ignore and charon.interfaces_use allow one to
configure the network interfaces used by the daemon.
- The kernel-netlink plugin supports the charon.install_virtual_ip_on option,
which specifies the interface on which virtual IP addresses will be installed.
If it is not specified the current behavior of using the outbound interface
is preserved.
- The kernel-netlink plugin tries to keep the current source address when
looking for valid routes to reach other hosts.
- The autotools build has been migrated to use a config.h header. strongSwan
development headers will get installed during "make install" if
--with-dev-headers has been passed to ./configure.
- All crypto primitives gained return values for most operations, allowing
crypto backends to fail, for example when using hardware accelerators.
- The charon IKE daemon gained experimental support for the IKEv1 protocol.
Pluto has been removed from the 5.x series, and unless strongSwan is
configured with --disable-ikev1 or --disable-ikev2, charon handles both
keying protocols. The feature-set of IKEv1 in charon is almost on par with
pluto, but currently does not support AH or bundled AH+ESP SAs. Beside
RSA/ECDSA, PSK and XAuth, charon also supports the Hybrid authentication
mode. Informations for interoperability and migration is available at
- Charon's bus_t has been refactored so that loggers and other listeners are
now handled separately. The single lock was previously cause for deadlocks
if extensive listeners, such as the one provided by the updown plugin, wanted
to acquire locks that were held by other threads which in turn tried to log
messages, and thus were waiting to acquire the same lock currently held by
the thread calling the listener.
The implemented changes also allow the use of a read/write-lock for the
loggers which increases performance if multiple loggers are registered.
Besides several interface changes this last bit also changes the semantics
for loggers as these may now be called by multiple threads at the same time.
- Source routes are reinstalled if interfaces are reactivated or IP addresses
- The thread pool (processor_t) now has more control over the lifecycle of
a job (see job.h for details). In particular, it now controls the destruction
of jobs after execution and the cancellation of jobs during shutdown. Due to
these changes the requeueing feature, previously available to callback_job_t
only, is now available to all jobs (in addition to a new rescheduling
- In addition to trustchain key strength definitions for different public key
systems, the rightauth option now takes a list of signature hash algorithms
considered save for trustchain validation. For example, the setting
rightauth=rsa-2048-ecdsa-256-sha256-sha384-sha512 requires a trustchain
that uses at least RSA-2048 or ECDSA-256 keys and certificate signatures
using SHA-256 or better.
- Fixed a security vulnerability in the gmp plugin. If this plugin was used
for RSA signature verification an empty or zeroed signature was handled as
a legitimate one.
- Fixed several issues with reauthentication and address updates.
- The tnc-pdp plugin implements a RADIUS server interface allowing
a strongSwan TNC server to act as a Policy Decision Point.
- The eap-radius authentication backend enforces Session-Timeout attributes
using RFC4478 repeated authentication and acts upon RADIUS Dynamic
Authorization extensions, RFC 5176. Currently supported are disconnect
requests and CoA messages containing a Session-Timeout.
- The eap-radius plugin can forward arbitrary RADIUS attributes from and to
clients using custom IKEv2 notify payloads. The new radattr plugin reads
attributes to include from files and prints received attributes to the
- Added support for untruncated MD5 and SHA1 HMACs in ESP as used in
RFC 4595.
- The cmac plugin implements the AES-CMAC-96 and AES-CMAC-PRF-128 algorithms
as defined in RFC 4494 and RFC 4615, respectively.
- The resolve plugin automatically installs nameservers via resolvconf(8),
if it is installed, instead of modifying /etc/resolv.conf directly.
- The IKEv2 charon daemon supports now raw RSA public keys in RFC 3110
DNSKEY and PKCS#1 file format.
- Upgraded the TCG IF-IMC and IF-IMV C API to the upcoming version 1.3
which supports IF-TNCCS 2.0 long message types, the exclusive flags
and multiple IMC/IMV IDs. Both the TNC Client and Server as well as
the "Test", "Scanner", and "Attestation" IMC/IMV pairs were updated.
- Fully implemented the "TCG Attestation PTS Protocol: Binding to IF-M"
standard (TLV-based messages only). TPM-based remote attestation of
Linux IMA (Integrity Measurement Architecture) possible. Measurement
reference values are automatically stored in an SQLite database.
- The EAP-RADIUS authentication backend supports RADIUS accounting. It sends
start/stop messages containing Username, Framed-IP and Input/Output-Octets
attributes and has been tested against FreeRADIUS and Microsoft NPS.
- Added support for PKCS#8 encoded private keys via the libstrongswan
pkcs8 plugin. This is the default format used by some OpenSSL tools since
version 1.0.0 (e.g. openssl req with -keyout).
- Added session resumption support to the strongSwan TLS stack.
- Because of changing checksums before and after installation which caused
the integrity tests to fail we avoided directly linking libsimaka, libtls and
libtnccs to those libcharon plugins which make use of these dynamic libraries.
Instead we linked the libraries to the charon daemon. Unfortunately Ubuntu
11.10 activated the --as-needed ld option which discards explicit links
to dynamic libraries that are not actually used by the charon daemon itself,
thus causing failures during the loading of the plugins which depend on these
libraries for resolving external symbols.
- Therefore our approach of computing integrity checksums for plugins had to be
changed radically by moving the hash generation from the compilation to the
post-installation phase.
- The new libstrongswan certexpire plugin collects expiration information of
all used certificates and exports them to CSV files. It either directly
exports them or uses cron style scheduling for batch exports.
- starter passes unresolved hostnames to charon, allowing it to do name
resolution not before the connection attempt. This is especially useful with
connections between hosts using dynamic IP addresses. Thanks to Mirko Parthey
for the initial patch.
- The android plugin can now be used without the Android frontend patch and
provides DNS server registration and logging to logcat.
- Pluto and starter (plus stroke and whack) have been ported to Android.
- Support for ECDSA private and public key operations has been added to the
pkcs11 plugin. The plugin now also provides DH and ECDH via PKCS#11 and can
use tokens as random number generators (RNG). By default only private key
operations are enabled, more advanced features have to be enabled by their
option in strongswan.conf. This also applies to public key operations (even
for keys not stored on the token) which were enabled by default before.
- The libstrongswan plugin system now supports detailed plugin dependencies.
Many plugins have been extended to export its capabilities and requirements.
This allows the plugin loader to resolve plugin loading order automatically,
and in future releases, to dynamically load the required features on demand.
Existing third party plugins are source (but not binary) compatible if they
properly initialize the new get_features() plugin function to NULL.
- The tnc-ifmap plugin implements a TNC IF-MAP 2.0 client which can deliver
metadata about IKE_SAs via a SOAP interface to a MAP server. The tnc-ifmap
plugin requires the Apache Axis2/C library.
- Our private libraries (e.g. libstrongswan) are not installed directly in
prefix/lib anymore. Instead a subdirectory is used (prefix/lib/ipsec/ by
default). The plugins directory is also moved from libexec/ipsec/ to that
- The dynamic IMC/IMV libraries were moved from the plugins directory to
a new imcvs directory in the prefix/lib/ipsec/ subdirectory.
- Job priorities were introduced to prevent thread starvation caused by too
many threads handling blocking operations (such as CRL fetching). Refer to
strongswan.conf(5) for details.
- Two new strongswan.conf options allow to fine-tune performance on IKEv2
gateways by dropping IKE_SA_INIT requests on high load.
- IKEv2 charon daemon supports start PASS and DROP shunt policies
preventing traffic to go through IPsec connections. Installation of the
shunt policies either via the XFRM netfilter or PFKEYv2 IPsec kernel
- The history of policies installed in the kernel is now tracked so that e.g.
trap policies are correctly updated when reauthenticated SAs are terminated.
- IMC/IMV Scanner pair implementing the RFC 5792 PA-TNC (IF-M) protocol.
Using "netstat -l" the IMC scans open listening ports on the TNC client
and sends a port list to the IMV which based on a port policy decides if
the client is admitted to the network.
- IMC/IMV Test pair implementing the RFC 5792 PA-TNC (IF-M) protocol.
- The IKEv2 close action does not use the same value as the ipsec.conf dpdaction
setting, but the value defined by its own closeaction keyword. The action
is triggered if the remote peer closes a CHILD_SA unexpectedly.
- The whitelist plugin for the IKEv2 daemon maintains an in-memory identity
whitelist. Any connection attempt of peers not whitelisted will get rejected.
The 'ipsec whitelist' utility provides a simple command line frontend for
whitelist administration.
- The duplicheck plugin provides a specialized form of duplicate checking,
doing a liveness check on the old SA and optionally notify a third party
application about detected duplicates.
- The coupling plugin permanently couples two or more devices by limiting
authentication to previously used certificates.
- In the case that the peer config and child config don't have the same name
(usually in SQL database defined connections), ipsec up|route <peer config>
starts|routes all associated child configs and ipsec up|route <child config>
only starts|routes the specific child config.
- fixed the encoding and parsing of X.509 certificate policy statements (CPS).
- Duncan Salerno contributed the eap-sim-pcsc plugin implementing a
pcsc-lite based SIM card backend.
- The eap-peap plugin implements the EAP PEAP protocol. Interoperates
successfully with a FreeRADIUS server and Windows 7 Agile VPN clients.
- The IKEv2 daemon charon rereads strongswan.conf on SIGHUP and instructs
all plugins to reload. Currently only the eap-radius and the attr plugins
support configuration reloading.
- Added userland support to the IKEv2 daemon for Extended Sequence Numbers
support coming with Linux 2.6.39. To enable ESN on a connection, add
the 'esn' keyword to the proposal. The default proposal uses 32-bit sequence
numbers only ('noesn'), and the same value is used if no ESN mode is
specified. To negotiate ESN support with the peer, include both, e.g.
- In addition to ESN, Linux 2.6.39 gained support for replay windows larger
than 32 packets. The new global strongswan.conf option 'charon.replay_window'
configures the size of the replay window, in packets.
- Sansar Choinyambuu implemented the RFC 5793 Posture Broker Protocol (BP)
compatible with Trusted Network Connect (TNC). The TNCCS 2.0 protocol
requires the tnccs_20, tnc_imc and tnc_imv plugins but does not depend
on the libtnc library. Any available IMV/IMC pairs conforming to the
Trusted Computing Group's TNC-IF-IMV/IMC 1.2 interface specification
can be loaded via /etc/tnc_config.
- Re-implemented the TNCCS 1.1 protocol by using the tnc_imc and tnc_imv
in place of the external libtnc library.
- The tnccs_dynamic plugin loaded on a TNC server in addition to the
tnccs_11 and tnccs_20 plugins, dynamically detects the IF-TNCCS
protocol version used by a TNC client and invokes an instance of
the corresponding protocol stack.
- IKE and ESP proposals can now be stored in an SQL database using a
new proposals table. The start_action field in the child_configs
tables allows the automatic starting or routing of connections stored
in an SQL database.
- The new certificate_authorities and certificate_distribution_points
tables make it possible to store CRL and OCSP Certificate Distribution
points in an SQL database.
- The new 'include' statement allows to recursively include other files in
strongswan.conf. Existing sections and values are thereby extended and
replaced, respectively.
- Due to the changes in the parser for strongswan.conf, the configuration
syntax for the attr plugin has changed. Previously, it was possible to
specify multiple values of a specific attribute type by adding multiple
key/value pairs with the same key (e.g. dns) to the plugins.attr section.
Because values with the same key now replace previously defined values
this is not possible anymore. As an alternative, multiple values can be
specified by separating them with a comma (e.g. dns =,
- ipsec listalgs now appends (set in square brackets) to each crypto
algorithm listed the plugin that registered the function.
- Traffic Flow Confidentiality padding supported with Linux 2.6.38 can be used
by the IKEv2 daemon. The ipsec.conf 'tfc' keyword pads all packets to a given
boundary, the special value '%mtu' pads all packets to the path MTU.
- The new af-alg plugin can use various crypto primitives of the Linux Crypto
API using the AF_ALG interface introduced with 2.6.38. This removes the need
for additional userland implementations of symmetric cipher, hash, hmac and
xcbc algorithms.
- The IKEv2 daemon supports the INITIAL_CONTACT notify as initiator and
responder. The notify is sent when initiating configurations with a unique
policy, set in ipsec.conf via the global 'uniqueids' option.
- The conftest conformance testing framework enables the IKEv2 stack to perform
many tests using a distinct tool and configuration frontend. Various hooks
can alter reserved bits, flags, add custom notifies and proposals, reorder
or drop messages and much more. It is enabled using the --enable-conftest
./configure switch.
- The new libstrongswan constraints plugin provides advanced X.509 constraint
checking. In addition to X.509 pathLen constraints, the plugin checks for
nameConstraints and certificatePolicies, including policyMappings and
policyConstraints. The x509 certificate plugin and the pki tool have been
enhanced to support these extensions. The new left/rightcertpolicy ipsec.conf
connection keywords take OIDs a peer certificate must have.
- The left/rightauth ipsec.conf keywords accept values with a minimum strength
for trustchain public keys in bits, such as rsa-2048 or ecdsa-256.
- The revocation and x509 libstrongswan plugins and the pki tool gained basic
support for delta CRLs.
- IMPORTANT: the default keyexchange mode 'ike' is changing with release 4.5
from 'ikev1' to 'ikev2', thus commemorating the five year anniversary of the
IKEv2 RFC 4306 and its mature successor RFC 5996. The time has definitively
come for IKEv1 to go into retirement and to cede its place to the much more
robust, powerful and versatile IKEv2 protocol!
- Added new ctr, ccm and gcm plugins providing Counter, Counter with CBC-MAC
and Galois/Counter Modes based on existing CBC implementations. These
new plugins bring support for AES and Camellia Counter and CCM algorithms
and the AES GCM algorithms for use in IKEv2.
- The new pkcs11 plugin brings full Smartcard support to the IKEv2 daemon and
the pki utility using one or more PKCS#11 libraries. It currently supports
RSA private and public key operations and loads X.509 certificates from
- Implemented a general purpose TLS stack based on crypto and credential
primitives of libstrongswan. libtls supports TLS versions 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2,
ECDHE-ECDSA/RSA, DHE-RSA and RSA key exchange algorithms and RSA/ECDSA based
client authentication.
- Based on libtls, the eap-tls plugin brings certificate based EAP
authentication for client and server. It is compatible to Windows 7 IKEv2
Smartcard authentication and the OpenSSL based FreeRADIUS EAP-TLS backend.
- Implemented the TNCCS 1.1 Trusted Network Connect protocol using the
libtnc library on the strongSwan client and server side via the tnccs_11
plugin and optionally connecting to a TNC@FHH-enhanced FreeRADIUS AAA server.
Depending on the resulting TNC Recommendation, strongSwan clients are granted
access to a network behind a strongSwan gateway (allow), are put into a
remediation zone (isolate) or are blocked (none), respectively. Any number
of Integrity Measurement Collector/Verifier pairs can be attached
via the tnc-imc and tnc-imv charon plugins.
- The IKEv1 daemon pluto now uses the same kernel interfaces as the IKEv2
daemon charon. As a result of this, pluto now supports xfrm marks which
were introduced in charon with 4.4.1.
- Applets for Maemo 5 (Nokia) allow to easily configure and control IKEv2
based VPN connections with EAP authentication on supported devices.
- The RADIUS plugin eap-radius now supports multiple RADIUS servers for
redundant setups. Servers are selected by a defined priority, server load and
- The simple led plugin controls hardware LEDs through the Linux LED subsystem.
It currently shows activity of the IKE daemon and is a good example how to
implement a simple event listener.
- Improved MOBIKE behavior in several corner cases, for instance, if the
initial responder moves to a different address.
- Fixed left-/rightnexthop option, which was broken since 4.4.0.
- Fixed a bug not releasing a virtual IP address to a pool if the XAUTH
identity was different from the IKE identity.
- Fixed the alignment of ModeConfig messages on 4-byte boundaries in the
case where the attributes are not a multiple of 4 bytes (e.g. Cisco's
- Fixed the interoperability of the socket_raw and socket_default
charon plugins.
- Added man page for strongswan.conf
- Support of xfrm marks in IPsec SAs and IPsec policies introduced
with the Linux 2.6.34 kernel. For details see the example scenarios
ikev2/nat-two-rw-mark, ikev2/rw-nat-mark-in-out and ikev2/net2net-psk-dscp.
- The PLUTO_MARK_IN and PLUTO_ESP_ENC environment variables can be used
in a user-specific updown script to set marks on inbound ESP or
ESP_IN_UDP packets.
- The openssl plugin now supports X.509 certificate and CRL functions.
- OCSP/CRL checking in IKEv2 has been moved to the revocation plugin, enabled
by default. Plase update manual load directives in strongswan.conf.
- RFC3779 ipAddrBlock constraint checking has been moved to the addrblock
plugin, disabled by default. Enable it and update manual load directives
in strongswan.conf, if required.
- The pki utility supports CRL generation using the --signcrl command.
- The ipsec pki --self, --issue and --req commands now support output in
PEM format using the --outform pem option.
- The major refactoring of the IKEv1 Mode Config functionality now allows
the transport and handling of any Mode Config attribute.
- The RADIUS proxy plugin eap-radius now supports multiple servers. Configured
servers are chosen randomly, with the option to prefer a specific server.
Non-responding servers are degraded by the selection process.
- The ipsec pool tool manages arbitrary configuration attributes stored
in an SQL database. ipsec pool --help gives the details.
- The new eap-simaka-sql plugin acts as a backend for EAP-SIM and EAP-AKA,
reading triplets/quintuplets from an SQL database.
- The High Availability plugin now supports a HA enabled in-memory address
pool and Node reintegration without IKE_SA rekeying. The latter allows
clients without IKE_SA rekeying support to keep connected during
reintegration. Additionally, many other issues have been fixed in the ha
- Fixed a potential remote code execution vulnerability resulting from
the misuse of snprintf(). The vulnerability is exploitable by
unauthenticated users.
- The IKEv2 High Availability plugin has been integrated. It provides
load sharing and failover capabilities in a cluster of currently two nodes,
based on an extend ClusterIP kernel module. More information is available at
The development of the High Availability functionality was sponsored by
secunet Security Networks AG.
- Added IKEv1 and IKEv2 configuration support for the AES-GMAC
authentication-only ESP cipher. Our aes_gmac kernel patch or a Linux
2.6.34 kernel is required to make AES-GMAC available via the XFRM
kernel interface.
- Added support for Diffie-Hellman groups 22, 23 and 24 to the gmp, gcrypt
and openssl plugins, usable by both pluto and charon. The new proposal
keywords are modp1024s160, modp2048s224 and modp2048s256. Thanks to Joy Latten
from IBM for his contribution.
- The IKEv1 pluto daemon supports RAM-based virtual IP pools using
the rightsourceip directive with a subnet from which addresses
are allocated.
- The ipsec pki --gen and --pub commands now allow the output of
private and public keys in PEM format using the --outform pem
command line option.
- The new DHCP plugin queries virtual IP addresses for clients from a DHCP
server using broadcasts, or a defined server using the
charon.plugins.dhcp.server strongswan.conf option. DNS/WINS server information
is additionally served to clients if the DHCP server provides such
information. The plugin is used in ipsec.conf configurations having
rightsourceip set to %dhcp.
- A new plugin called farp fakes ARP responses for virtual IP addresses
handed out to clients from the IKEv2 daemon charon. The plugin lets a
road-warrior act as a client on the local LAN if it uses a virtual IP
from the responders subnet, e.g. acquired using the DHCP plugin.
- The existing IKEv2 socket implementations have been migrated to the
socket-default and the socket-raw plugins. The new socket-dynamic plugin
binds sockets dynamically to ports configured via the left-/rightikeport
ipsec.conf connection parameters.
- The android charon plugin stores received DNS server information as "net.dns"
system properties, as used by the Android platform.
- The IKEv2 daemon supports RFC 3779 IP address block constraints
carried as a critical X.509v3 extension in the peer certificate.
- The ipsec pool --add|del dns|nbns command manages DNS and NBNS name
server entries that are sent via the IKEv1 Mode Config or IKEv2
Configuration Payload to remote clients.
- The Camellia cipher can be used as an IKEv1 encryption algorithm.
- The IKEv1 and IKEV2 daemons now check certificate path length constraints.
- The new ipsec.conf conn option "inactivity" closes a CHILD_SA if no traffic
was sent or received within the given interval. To close the complete IKE_SA
if its only CHILD_SA was inactive, set the global strongswan.conf option
"charon.inactivity_close_ike" to yes.
- More detailed IKEv2 EAP payload information in debug output
- IKEv2 EAP-SIM and EAP-AKA share joint libsimaka library
- Added required userland changes for proper SHA256 and SHA384/512 in ESP that
will be introduced with Linux 2.6.33. The "sha256"/"sha2_256" keyword now
configures the kernel with 128 bit truncation, not the non-standard 96
bit truncation used by previous releases. To use the old 96 bit truncation
scheme, the new "sha256_96" proposal keyword has been introduced.
- Fixed IPComp in tunnel mode, stripping out the duplicated outer header. This
change makes IPcomp tunnel mode connections incompatible with previous
releases; disable compression on such tunnels.
- Fixed BEET mode connections on recent kernels by installing SAs with
appropriate traffic selectors, based on a patch by Michael Rossberg.
- Using extensions (such as BEET mode) and crypto algorithms (such as twofish,
serpent, sha256_96) allocated in the private use space now require that we
know its meaning, i.e. we are talking to strongSwan. Use the new
"charon.send_vendor_id" option in strongswan.conf to let the remote peer know
this is the case.
- Experimental support for draft-eronen-ipsec-ikev2-eap-auth, where the
responder omits public key authentication in favor of a mutual authentication
method. To enable EAP-only authentication, set rightauth=eap on the responder
to rely only on the MSK constructed AUTH payload. This not-yet standardized
extension requires the strongSwan vendor ID introduced above.
- The IKEv1 daemon ignores the Juniper SRX notification type 40001, thus
allowing interoperability.
- The IKEv1 pluto daemon can now use SQL-based address pools to deal out
virtual IP addresses as a Mode Config server. The pool capability has been
migrated from charon's sql plugin to a new attr-sql plugin which is loaded
by libstrongswan and which can be used by both daemons either with a SQLite
or MySQL database and the corresponding plugin.
- Plugin names have been streamlined: EAP plugins now have a dash after eap
(e.g. eap-sim), as it is used with the --enable-eap-sim ./configure option.
Plugin configuration sections in strongswan.conf now use the same name as the
plugin itself (i.e. with a dash). Make sure to update "load" directives and
the affected plugin sections in existing strongswan.conf files.
- The private/public key parsing and encoding has been split up into
separate pkcs1, pgp, pem and dnskey plugins. The public key implementation
plugins gmp, gcrypt and openssl can all make use of them.
- The EAP-AKA plugin can use different backends for USIM/quintuplet
calculations, very similar to the EAP-SIM plugin. The existing 3GPP2 software
implementation has been migrated to a separate plugin.
- The IKEv2 daemon charon gained basic PGP support. It can use locally installed
peer certificates and can issue signatures based on RSA private keys.
- The new 'ipsec pki' tool provides a set of commands to maintain a public
key infrastructure. It currently supports operations to create RSA and ECDSA
private/public keys, calculate fingerprints and issue or verify certificates.
- Charon uses a monotonic time source for statistics and job queueing, behaving
correctly if the system time changes (e.g. when using NTP).
- In addition to time based rekeying, charon supports IPsec SA lifetimes based
on processed volume or number of packets. They new ipsec.conf paramaters
'lifetime' (an alias to 'keylife'), 'lifebytes' and 'lifepackets' handle
SA timeouts, while the parameters 'margintime' (an alias to rekeymargin),
'marginbytes' and 'marginpackets' trigger the rekeying before a SA expires.
The existing parameter 'rekeyfuzz' affects all margins.
- If no CA/Gateway certificate is specified in the NetworkManager plugin,
charon uses a set of trusted root certificates preinstalled by distributions.
The directory containing CA certificates can be specified using the
--with-nm-ca-dir=path configure option.
- Fixed the encoding of the Email relative distinguished name in left|rightid
- Fixed the broken parsing of PKCS#7 wrapped certificates by the pluto daemon.
- Fixed smartcard-based authentication in the pluto daemon which was broken by
the ECDSA support introduced with the 4.3.2 release.
- A patch contributed by Heiko Hund fixes mixed IPv6 in IPv4 and vice versa
tunnels established with the IKEv1 pluto daemon.
- The pluto daemon now uses the libstrongswan x509 plugin for certificates and
CRls and the struct id type was replaced by identification_t used by charon
and the libstrongswan library.
- IKEv2 charon daemon ported to FreeBSD and Mac OS X. Installation details can
be found on
- ipsec statusall shows the number of bytes transmitted and received over
ESP connections configured by the IKEv2 charon daemon.
- The IKEv2 charon daemon supports include files in ipsec.secrets.
- The configuration option --enable-integrity-test plus the strongswan.conf
option libstrongswan.integrity_test = yes activate integrity tests
of the IKE daemons charon and pluto, libstrongswan and all loaded
plugins. Thus dynamic library misconfigurations and non-malicious file
manipulations can be reliably detected.
- The new default setting libstrongswan.ecp_x_coordinate_only=yes allows
IKEv1 interoperability with MS Windows using the ECP DH groups 19 and 20.
- The IKEv1 pluto daemon now supports the AES-CCM and AES-GCM ESP
authenticated encryption algorithms.
- The IKEv1 pluto daemon now supports V4 OpenPGP keys.
- The RDN parser vulnerability discovered by Orange Labs research team
was not completely fixed in version 4.3.2. Some more modifications
had to be applied to the asn1_length() function to make it robust.
- The new gcrypt plugin provides symmetric cipher, hasher, RNG, Diffie-Hellman
and RSA crypto primitives using the LGPL licensed GNU gcrypt library.
- libstrongswan features an integrated crypto selftest framework for registered
algorithms. The test-vector plugin provides a first set of test vectors and
allows pluto and charon to rely on tested crypto algorithms.
- pluto can now use all libstrongswan plugins with the exception of x509 and xcbc.
Thanks to the openssl plugin, the ECP Diffie-Hellman groups 19, 20, 21, 25, and
26 as well as ECDSA-256, ECDSA-384, and ECDSA-521 authentication can be used
with IKEv1.
- Applying their fuzzing tool, the Orange Labs vulnerability research team found
another two DoS vulnerabilities, one in the rather old ASN.1 parser of Relative
Distinguished Names (RDNs) and a second one in the conversion of ASN.1 UTCTIME
and GENERALIZEDTIME strings to a time_t value.
- The nm plugin now passes DNS/NBNS server information to NetworkManager,
allowing a gateway administrator to set DNS/NBNS configuration on clients
- The nm plugin also accepts CA certificates for gateway authentication. If
a CA certificate is configured, strongSwan uses the entered gateway address
as its idenitity, requiring the gateways certificate to contain the same as
subjectAltName. This allows a gateway administrator to deploy the same
certificates to Windows 7 and NetworkManager clients.
- The command ipsec purgeike deletes IKEv2 SAs that don't have a CHILD SA.
The command ipsec down <conn>{n} deletes CHILD SA instance n of connection
<conn> whereas ipsec down <conn>{*} deletes all CHILD SA instances.
The command ipsec down <conn>[n] deletes IKE SA instance n of connection
<conn> plus dependent CHILD SAs whereas ipsec down <conn>[*] deletes all
IKE SA instances of connection <conn>.
- Fixed a regression introduced in 4.3.0 where EAP authentication calculated
the AUTH payload incorrectly. Further, the EAP-MSCHAPv2 MSK key derivation
has been updated to be compatible with the Windows 7 Release Candidate.
- Refactored installation of triggering policies. Routed policies are handled
outside of IKE_SAs to keep them installed in any case. A tunnel gets
established only once, even if initiation is delayed due network outages.
- Improved the handling of multiple acquire signals triggered by the kernel.
- Fixed two DoS vulnerabilities in the charon daemon that were discovered by
fuzzing techniques: 1) Sending a malformed IKE_SA_INIT request leaved an
incomplete state which caused a null pointer dereference if a subsequent
CREATE_CHILD_SA request was sent. 2) Sending an IKE_AUTH request with either
a missing TSi or TSr payload caused a null pointer derefence because the
checks for TSi and TSr were interchanged. The IKEv2 fuzzer used was
developed by the Orange Labs vulnerability research team. The tool was
initially written by Gabriel Campana and is now maintained by Laurent Butti.
- Added support for AES counter mode in ESP in IKEv2 using the proposal
keywords aes128ctr, aes192ctr and aes256ctr.
- Further progress in refactoring pluto: Use of the curl and ldap plugins
for fetching crls and OCSP. Use of the random plugin to get keying material
from /dev/random or /dev/urandom. Use of the openssl plugin as an alternative
to the aes, des, sha1, sha2, and md5 plugins. The blowfish, twofish, and
serpent encryption plugins are now optional and are not enabled by default.
- Support for the IKEv2 Multiple Authentication Exchanges extension (RFC4739).
Initiators and responders can use several authentication rounds (e.g. RSA
followed by EAP) to authenticate. The new ipsec.conf leftauth/rightauth and
leftauth2/rightauth2 parameters define own authentication rounds or setup
constraints for the remote peer. See the ipsec.conf man page for more detials.
- If glibc printf hooks (register_printf_function) are not available,
strongSwan can use the vstr string library to run on non-glibc systems.
- The IKEv2 charon daemon can now configure the ESP CAMELLIA-CBC cipher
- Refactored the pluto and scepclient code to use basic functions (memory
allocation, leak detective, chunk handling, printf_hooks, strongswan.conf
attributes, ASN.1 parser, etc.) from the libstrongswan library.
- Up to two DNS and WINS servers to be sent via IKEv1 ModeConfig can be
configured in the pluto section of strongswan.conf.
- The new server-side EAP RADIUS plugin (--enable-eap-radius)
relays EAP messages to and from a RADIUS server. Successfully
tested with with a freeradius server using EAP-MD5 and EAP-SIM.
- A vulnerability in the Dead Peer Detection (RFC 3706) code was found by
Gerd v. Egidy <> of Intra2net AG affecting
all Openswan and strongSwan releases. A malicious (or expired ISAKMP)
R_U_THERE or R_U_THERE_ACK Dead Peer Detection packet can cause the
pluto IKE daemon to crash and restart. No authentication or encryption
is required to trigger this bug. One spoofed UDP packet can cause the
pluto IKE daemon to restart and be unresponsive for a few seconds while
restarting. This DPD null state vulnerability has been officially
registered as CVE-2009-0790 and is fixed by this release.
- ASN.1 to time_t conversion caused a time wrap-around for
dates after Jan 18 03:14:07 UTC 2038 on 32-bit platforms.
As a workaround such dates are set to the maximum representable
time, i.e. Jan 19 03:14:07 UTC 2038.
- Distinguished Names containing wildcards (*) are not sent in the
IDr payload anymore.
- Fixed a use-after-free bug in the DPD timeout section of the
IKEv1 pluto daemon which sporadically caused a segfault.
- Fixed a crash in the IKEv2 charon daemon occurring with
mixed RAM-based and SQL-based virtual IP address pools.
- Fixed ASN.1 parsing of algorithmIdentifier objects where the
parameters field is optional.
- Ported nm plugin to NetworkManager 7.1.
- Support of the EAP-MSCHAPv2 protocol enabled by the option
--enable-eap-mschapv2. Requires the MD4 hash algorithm enabled
either by --enable-md4 or --enable-openssl.
- Assignment of up to two DNS and up to two WINS servers to peers via
the IKEv2 Configuration Payload (CP). The IPv4 or IPv6 nameserver
addresses are defined in strongswan.conf.
- The strongSwan applet for the Gnome NetworkManager is now built and
distributed as a separate tarball under the name NetworkManager-strongswan.
- Fixed ESP NULL encryption broken by the refactoring of keymat.c.
Also introduced proper initialization and disposal of keying material.
- Fixed the missing listing of connection definitions in ipsec statusall
broken by an unfortunate local variable overload.
- Several performance improvements to handle thousands of tunnels with almost
linear upscaling. All relevant data structures have been replaced by faster
counterparts with better lookup times.
- Better parallelization to run charon on multiple cores. Due to improved
ressource locking and other optimizations the daemon can take full
advantage of 16 or even more cores.
- The load-tester plugin can use a NULL Diffie-Hellman group and simulate
unique identities and certificates by signing peer certificates using a CA
on the fly.
- The redesigned stroke in-memory IP pool handles leases. The "ipsec leases"
command queries assigned leases.
- Added support for smartcards in charon by using the ENGINE API provided by
OpenSSL, based on patches by Michael Roßberg.
- The Padlock plugin supports the hardware RNG found on VIA CPUs to provide a
reliable source of randomness.
- Flexible configuration of logging subsystem allowing to log to multiple
syslog facilities or to files using fine-grained log levels for each target.
- Load testing plugin to do stress testing of the IKEv2 daemon against self
or another host. Found and fixed issues during tests in the multi-threaded
use of the OpenSSL plugin.
- Added profiling code to synchronization primitives to find bottlenecks if
running on multiple cores. Found and fixed an issue where parts of the
Diffie-Hellman calculation acquired an exclusive lock. This greatly improves
parallelization to multiple cores.
- updown script invocation has been separated into a plugin of its own to
further slim down the daemon core.
- Separated IKE_SA/CHILD_SA key derivation process into a closed system,
allowing future implementations to use a secured environment in e.g. kernel
memory or hardware.
- The kernel interface of charon has been modularized. XFRM NETLINK (default)
and PFKEY (--enable-kernel-pfkey) interface plugins for the native IPsec
stack of the Linux 2.6 kernel as well as a PFKEY interface for the KLIPS
IPsec stack (--enable-kernel-klips) are provided.
- Basic Mobile IPv6 support has been introduced, securing Binding Update
messages as well as tunneled traffic between Mobile Node and Home Agent.
The installpolicy=no option allows peaceful cooperation with a dominant
mip6d daemon and the new type=transport_proxy implements the special MIPv6
IPsec transport proxy mode where the IKEv2 daemon uses the Care-of-Address
but the IPsec SA is set up for the Home Address.
- Implemented migration of Mobile IPv6 connections using the KMADDRESS
field contained in XFRM_MSG_MIGRATE messages sent by the mip6d daemon
via the Linux 2.6.28 (or appropriately patched) kernel.
- IKEv2 charon daemon supports authentication based on raw public keys
stored in the SQL database backend. The ipsec listpubkeys command
lists the available raw public keys via the stroke interface.
- Several MOBIKE improvements: Detect changes in NAT mappings in DPD exchanges,
handle events if kernel detects NAT mapping changes in UDP-encapsulated
ESP packets (requires kernel patch), reuse old addesses in MOBIKE updates as
long as possible and other fixes.
- Fixed a bug in addr_in_subnet() which caused insertion of wrong source
routes for destination subnets having netwmasks not being a multiple of 8 bits.
Thanks go to Wolfgang Steudel, TU Ilmenau for reporting this bug.
- Fixed a Denial-of-Service vulnerability where an IKE_SA_INIT message with
a KE payload containing zeroes only can cause a crash of the IKEv2 charon
daemon due to a NULL pointer returned by the mpz_export() function of the
GNU Multiprecision Library (GMP). Thanks go to Mu Dynamics Research Labs
for making us aware of this problem.
- The new agent plugin provides a private key implementation on top of an
- The NetworkManager plugin has been extended to support certificate client
authentication using RSA keys loaded from a file or using ssh-agent.
- Daemon capability dropping has been ported to libcap and must be enabled
explicitly --with-capabilities=libcap. Future version will support the
newer libcap2 library.
- ipsec listalgs lists the IKEv2 cryptografic algorithms registered with the
charon keying daemon.
- A NetworkManager plugin allows GUI-based configuration of road-warrior
clients in a simple way. It features X509 based gateway authentication
and EAP client authentication, tunnel setup/teardown and storing passwords
in the Gnome Keyring.
- A new EAP-GTC plugin implements draft-sheffer-ikev2-gtc-00.txt and allows
username/password authentication against any PAM service on the gateway.
The new EAP method interacts nicely with the NetworkManager plugin and allows
client authentication against e.g. LDAP.
- Improved support for the EAP-Identity method. The new ipsec.conf eap_identity
parameter defines an additional identity to pass to the server in EAP
- The "ipsec statusall" command now lists CA restrictions, EAP
authentication types and EAP identities.
- Fixed two multithreading deadlocks occurring when starting up
several hundred tunnels concurrently.
- Fixed the --enable-integrity-test configure option which
computes a SHA-1 checksum over the libstrongswan library.
- Consistent logging of IKE and CHILD SAs at the audit (AUD) level.
- Improved the performance of the SQL-based virtual IP address pool
by introducing an additional addresses table. The leases table
storing only history information has become optional and can be
disabled by setting charon.plugins.sql.lease_history = no in
- The XFRM_STATE_AF_UNSPEC flag added to xfrm.h allows IPv4-over-IPv6
and IPv6-over-IPv4 tunnels with the 2.6.26 and later Linux kernels.
- management of different virtual IP pools for different
network interfaces have become possible.
- fixed a bug which prevented the assignment of more than 256
virtual IP addresses from a pool managed by an sql database.
- fixed a bug which did not delete own IPCOMP SAs in the kernel.
- Added statistics functions to ipsec pool --status and ipsec pool --leases
and input validation checks to various ipsec pool commands.
- ipsec statusall now lists all loaded charon plugins and displays
the negotiated IKEv2 cipher suite proposals.
- The openssl plugin supports the elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman groups
19, 20, 21, 25, and 26.
- The openssl plugin supports ECDSA authentication using elliptic curve
X.509 certificates.
- Fixed a bug in stroke which caused multiple charon threads to close
the file descriptors during packet transfers over the stroke socket.
- ESP sequence numbers are now migrated in IPsec SA updates handled by
MOBIKE. Works only with Linux kernels >= 2.6.17.
- Fixed the strongswan.conf path configuration problem that occurred when
--sysconfig was not set explicitly in ./configure.
- Fixed a number of minor bugs that where discovered during the 4th
IKEv2 interoperability workshop in San Antonio, TX.
- Plugins for libstrongswan and charon can optionally be loaded according
to a configuration in strongswan.conf. Most components provide a
"load = " option followed by a space separated list of plugins to load.
This allows e.g. the fallback from a hardware crypto accelerator to
to software-based crypto plugins.
- Charons SQL plugin has been extended by a virtual IP address pool.
Configurations with a rightsourceip=%poolname setting query a SQLite or
MySQL database for leases. The "ipsec pool" command helps in administrating
the pool database. See ipsec pool --help for the available options
- The Authenticated Encryption Algorithms AES-CCM-8/12/16 and AES-GCM-8/12/16
for ESP are now supported starting with the Linux 2.6.25 kernel. The
syntax is e.g. esp=aes128ccm12 or esp=aes256gcm16.
- Support for "Hash and URL" encoded certificate payloads has been implemented
in the IKEv2 daemon charon. Using the "certuribase" option of a CA section
allows to assign a base URL to all certificates issued by the specified CA.
The final URL is then built by concatenating that base and the hex encoded
SHA1 hash of the DER encoded certificate. Note that this feature is disabled
by default and must be enabled using the option "charon.hash_and_url".
- The IKEv2 daemon charon now supports the "uniqueids" option to close multiple
IKE_SAs with the same peer. The option value "keep" prefers existing
connection setups over new ones, where the value "replace" replaces existing
- The crypto factory in libstrongswan additionally supports random number
generators, plugins may provide other sources of randomness. The default
plugin reads raw random data from /dev/(u)random.
- Extended the credential framework by a caching option to allow plugins
persistent caching of fetched credentials. The "cachecrl" option has been
- The new trustchain verification introduced in 4.2.0 has been parallelized.
Threads fetching CRL or OCSP information no longer block other threads.
- A new IKEv2 configuration attribute framework has been introduced allowing
plugins to provide virtual IP addresses, and in the future, other
configuration attribute services (e.g. DNS/WINS servers).
- The stroke plugin has been extended to provide virtual IP addresses from
a pool defined in ipsec.conf. The "rightsourceip" parameter now accepts
address pools in CIDR notation (e.g. The parameter also accepts
the value "%poolname", where "poolname" identifies a pool provided by a
separate plugin.
- Fixed compilation on uClibc and a couple of other minor bugs.
- Set DPD defaults in ipsec starter to dpd_delay=30s and dpd_timeout=150s.
- The IKEv1 pluto daemon now supports the ESP encryption algorithm CAMELLIA
with key lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits, as well as the authentication
algorithm AES_XCBC_MAC. Configuration example: esp=camellia192-aesxcbc.
- libstrongswan has been modularized to attach crypto algorithms,
credential implementations (keys, certificates) and fetchers dynamically
through plugins. Existing code has been ported to plugins:
- RSA/Diffie-Hellman implementation using the GNU Multi Precision library
- X509 certificate system supporting CRLs, OCSP and attribute certificates
- Multiple plugins providing crypto algorithms in software
- CURL and OpenLDAP fetcher
- libstrongswan gained a relational database API which uses pluggable database
providers. Plugins for MySQL and SQLite are available.
- The IKEv2 keying daemon charon is more extensible. Generic plugins may provide
connection configuration, credentials and EAP methods or control the daemon.
Existing code has been ported to plugins:
- EAP-AKA, EAP-SIM, EAP-MD5 and EAP-Identity
- stroke configuration, credential and control (compatible to pluto)
- XML bases management protocol to control and query the daemon
The following new plugins are available:
- An experimental SQL configuration, credential and logging plugin on
top of either MySQL or SQLite
- A unit testing plugin to run tests at daemon startup
- The authentication and credential framework in charon has been heavily
refactored to support modular credential providers, proper
CERTREQ/CERT payload exchanges and extensible authorization rules.
- The framework of strongSwan Manager has envolved to the web application
framework libfast (FastCGI Application Server w/ Templates) and is usable
by other applications.
- IKE rekeying in NAT situations did not inherit the NAT conditions
to the rekeyed IKE_SA so that the UDP encapsulation was lost with
the next CHILD_SA rekeying.
- Wrong type definition of the next_payload variable in id_payload.c
caused an INVALID_SYNTAX error on PowerPC platforms.
- Implemented IKEv2 EAP-SIM server and client test modules that use
triplets stored in a file. For details on the configuration see
the scenario 'ikev2/rw-eap-sim-rsa'.
- Fixed error in the ordering of the certinfo_t records in the ocsp cache that
caused multiple entries of the same serial number to be created.
- Implementation of a simple EAP-MD5 module which provides CHAP
authentication. This may be interesting in conjunction with certificate
based server authentication, as weak passwords can't be brute forced
(in contradiction to traditional IKEv2 PSK).
- A complete software based implementation of EAP-AKA, using algorithms
specified in 3GPP2 (S.S0055). This implementation does not use an USIM,
but reads the secrets from ipsec.secrets. Make sure to read eap_aka.h
before using it.
- Support for vendor specific EAP methods using Expanded EAP types. The
interface to EAP modules has been slightly changed, so make sure to
check the changes if you're already rolling your own modules.
- The default _updown script now dynamically inserts and removes ip6tables
firewall rules if leftfirewall=yes is set in IPv6 connections. New IPv6
net-net and roadwarrior (PSK/RSA) scenarios for both IKEv1 and IKEV2 were
- Implemented RFC4478 repeated authentication to force EAP/Virtual-IP clients
to reestablish an IKE_SA within a given timeframe.
- strongSwan Manager supports configuration listing, initiation and termination
of IKE and CHILD_SAs.
- Fixes and improvements to multithreading code.
- IKEv2 plugins have been renamed to libcharon-* to avoid naming conflicts.
Make sure to remove the old plugins in $libexecdir/ipsec, otherwise they get
loaded twice.
- Removed recursive pthread mutexes since uClibc doesn't support them.
- In NAT traversal situations and multiple queued Quick Modes,
those pending connections inserted by auto=start after the
port floating from 500 to 4500 were erronously deleted.
- Added a "forceencaps" connection parameter to enforce UDP encapsulation
to surmount restrictive firewalls. NAT detection payloads are faked to
simulate a NAT situation and trick the other peer into NAT mode (IKEv2 only).
- Preview of strongSwan Manager, a web based configuration and monitoring
application. It uses a new XML control interface to query the IKEv2 daemon
- Experimental SQLite configuration backend which will provide the configuration
interface for strongSwan Manager in future releases.
- Further improvements to MOBIKE support.
- Since some third party IKEv2 implementations run into
problems with strongSwan announcing MOBIKE capability per
default, MOBIKE can be disabled on a per-connection-basis
using the mobike=no option. Whereas mobike=no disables the
sending of the MOBIKE_SUPPORTED notification and the floating
to UDP port 4500 with the IKE_AUTH request even if no NAT
situation has been detected, strongSwan will still support
MOBIKE acting as a responder.
- the default ipsec routing table plus its corresponding priority
used for inserting source routes has been changed from 100 to 220.
It can be configured using the --with-ipsec-routing-table and
--with-ipsec-routing-table-prio options.
- the --enable-integrity-test configure option tests the
integrity of the libstrongswan crypto code during the charon
- the --disable-xauth-vid configure option disables the sending
of the XAUTH vendor ID. This can be used as a workaround when
interoperating with some Windows VPN clients that get into
trouble upon reception of an XAUTH VID without eXtended
AUTHentication having been configured.
- ipsec stroke now supports the rereadsecrets, rereadaacerts,
rereadacerts, and listacerts options.
- If a DNS lookup failure occurs when resolving right=%<FQDN>
or right=<FQDN> combined with rightallowany=yes then the
connection is not updated by ipsec starter thus preventing
the disruption of an active IPsec connection. Only if the DNS
lookup successfully returns with a changed IP address the
corresponding connection definition is updated.
- Routes installed by the keying daemons are now in a separate
routing table with the ID 100 to avoid conflicts with the main
table. Route lookup for IKEv2 traffic is done in userspace to ignore
routes installed for IPsec, as IKE traffic shouldn't get encapsulated.
- The pluto IKEv1 daemon now exhibits the same behaviour as its
IKEv2 companion charon by inserting an explicit route via the
_updown script only if a sourceip exists. This is admissible
since routing through the IPsec tunnel is handled automatically
by NETKEY's IPsec policies. As a consequence the left|rightnexthop
parameter is not required any more.
- The new IKEv1 parameter right|leftallowany parameters helps to handle
the case where both peers possess dynamic IP addresses that are
usually resolved using DynDNS or a similar service. The configuration
can be used by the initiator to start up a connection to a peer
by resolving into the currently allocated IP address.
Thanks to the rightallowany flag the connection behaves later on
so that the peer can rekey the connection as an initiator when his
IP address changes. An alternative notation is
which will implicitly set rightallowany=yes.
- ipsec starter now fails more gracefully in the presence of parsing
errors. Flawed ca and conn section are discarded and pluto is started
if non-fatal errors only were encountered. If
cannot be resolved by DNS then right=%any will be used so that passive
connections as a responder are still possible.
- The new pkcs11initargs parameter that can be placed in the
setup config section of /etc/ipsec.conf allows the definition
of an argument string that is used with the PKCS#11 C_Initialize()
function. This non-standard feature is required by the NSS softoken
library. This patch was contributed by Robert Varga.
- Fixed a bug in ipsec starter introduced by strongswan-2.8.5
which caused a segmentation fault in the presence of unknown
or misspelt keywords in ipsec.conf. This bug fix was contributed
by Robert Varga.
- Partial support for MOBIKE in IKEv2. The initiator acts on interface/
address configuration changes and updates IKE and IPsec SAs dynamically.
- IKEv2 peer configuration selection now can be based on a given
certification authority using the rightca= statement.
- IKEv2 authentication based on RSA signatures now can handle multiple
certificates issued for a given peer ID. This allows a smooth transition
in the case of a peer certificate renewal.
- IKEv2: Support for requesting a specific virtual IP using leftsourceip on the
client and returning requested virtual IPs using rightsourceip=%config
on the server. If the server does not support configuration payloads, the
client enforces its leftsourceip parameter.
- The ./configure options --with-uid/--with-gid allow pluto and charon
to drop their privileges to a minimum and change to an other UID/GID. This
improves the systems security, as a possible intruder may only get the
CAP_NET_ADMIN capability.
- Further modularization of charon: Pluggable control interface and
configuration backend modules provide extensibility. The control interface
for stroke is included, and further interfaces using DBUS (NetworkManager)
or XML are on the way. A backend for storing configurations in the daemon
is provided and more advanced backends (using e.g. a database) are trivial
to implement.
- Fixed a compilation failure in libfreeswan occurring with Linux kernel
headers > 2.6.17.
- Support for an additional Diffie-Hellman exchange when creating/rekeying
a CHILD_SA in IKEv2 (PFS). PFS is enabled when the proposal contains a
DH group (e.g. "esp=aes128-sha1-modp1536"). Further, DH group negotiation
is implemented properly for rekeying.
- Support for the AES-XCBC-96 MAC algorithm for IPsec SAs when using IKEv2
(requires linux >= 2.6.20). It is enabled using e.g. "esp=aes256-aesxcbc".
- Working IPv4-in-IPv6 and IPv6-in-IPv4 tunnels for linux >= 2.6.21.
- Added support for EAP modules which do not establish an MSK.
- Removed the dependencies from the /usr/include/linux/ headers by
including xfrm.h, ipsec.h, and pfkeyv2.h in the distribution.
- crlNumber is now listed by ipsec listcrls
- The xauth_modules.verify_secret() function now passes the
connection name.
- Server side cookie support. If to may IKE_SAs are in CONNECTING state,
cookies are enabled and protect against DoS attacks with faked source
addresses. Number of IKE_SAs in CONNECTING state is also limited per
peer address to avoid resource exhaustion. IKE_SA_INIT messages are
compared to properly detect retransmissions and incoming retransmits are
detected even if the IKE_SA is blocked (e.g. doing OCSP fetches).
- The IKEv2 daemon charon now supports dynamic http- and ldap-based CRL
fetching enabled by crlcheckinterval > 0 and caching fetched CRLs
enabled by cachecrls=yes.
- Added the configuration options --enable-nat-transport which enables
the potentially insecure NAT traversal for IPsec transport mode and
--disable-vendor-id which disables the sending of the strongSwan
vendor ID.
- Fixed a long-standing bug in the pluto IKEv1 daemon which caused
a segmentation fault if a malformed payload was detected in the
IKE MR2 message and pluto tried to send an encrypted notification
- Added the NATT_IETF_02_N Vendor ID in order to support IKEv1 connections
with Windows 2003 Server which uses a wrong VID hash.
- Support of SHA2_384 hash function for protecting IKEv1
negotiations and support of SHA2 signatures in X.509 certificates.
- Fixed a serious bug in the computation of the SHA2-512 HMAC
function. Introduced automatic self-test of all IKEv1 hash
and hmac functions during pluto startup. Failure of a self-test
currently issues a warning only but does not exit pluto [yet].
- Support for SHA2-256/384/512 PRF and HMAC functions in IKEv2.
- Full support of CA information sections. ipsec listcainfos
now shows all collected crlDistributionPoints and OCSP
- Support of the Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) for IKEv2.
This feature requires the HTTP fetching capabilities of the libcurl
library which must be enabled by setting the --enable-http configure
- Refactored core of the IKEv2 message processing code, allowing better
code reuse and separation.
- Virtual IP support in IKEv2 using INTERNAL_IP4/6_ADDRESS configuration
payload. Additionally, the INTERNAL_IP4/6_DNS attribute is interpreted
by the requestor and installed in a resolv.conf file.
- The IKEv2 daemon charon installs a route for each IPsec policy to use
the correct source address even if an application does not explicitly
specify it.
- Integrated the EAP framework into charon which loads pluggable EAP library
modules. The ipsec.conf parameter authby=eap initiates EAP authentication
on the client side, while the "eap" parameter on the server side defines
the EAP method to use for client authentication.
A generic client side EAP-Identity module and an EAP-SIM authentication
module using a third party card reader implementation are included.
- Added client side support for cookies.
- Integrated the fixes done at the IKEv2 interoperability bakeoff, including
strict payload order, correct INVALID_KE_PAYLOAD rejection and other minor
fixes to enhance interoperability with other implementations.
- strongSwan now interoperates with the NCP Secure Entry Client,
the Shrew Soft VPN Client, and the Cisco VPN client, doing both
XAUTH and Mode Config.
- UNITY attributes are now recognized and UNITY_BANNER is set
to a default string.
- IKEv1: Support for extended authentication (XAUTH) in combination
with ISAKMP Main Mode RSA or PSK authentication. Both client and
server side were implemented. Handling of user credentials can
be done by a run-time loadable XAUTH module. By default user
credentials are stored in ipsec.secrets.
- IKEv2: Support for reauthentication when rekeying
- IKEv2: Support for transport mode
- fixed a lot of bugs related to byte order
- various other bugfixes
- IKEv1: Implementation of ModeConfig push mode via the new connection
keyword modeconfig=push allows interoperability with Cisco VPN gateways.
- IKEv1: The command ipsec statusall now shows "DPD active" for all
ISAKMP SAs that are under active Dead Peer Detection control.
- IKEv2: Charon's logging and debugging framework has been completely rewritten.
Instead of logger, special printf() functions are used to directly
print objects like hosts (%H) identifications (%D), certificates (%Q),
etc. The number of debugging levels have been reduced to:
0 (audit), 1 (control), 2 (controlmore), 3 (raw), 4 (private)
The debugging levels can either be specified statically in ipsec.conf as
config setup
charondebug="lib 1, cfg 3, net 2"
or changed at runtime via stroke as
ipsec stroke loglevel cfg 2
- Implemented full support for IPv6-in-IPv6 tunnels.
- Added configuration options for dead peer detection in IKEv2. dpd_action
types "clear", "hold" and "restart" are supported. The dpd_timeout
value is not used, as the normal retransmission policy applies to
detect dead peers. The dpd_delay parameter enables sending of empty
informational message to detect dead peers in case of inactivity.
- Added support for preshared keys in IKEv2. PSK keys configured in
ipsec.secrets are loaded. The authby parameter specifies the authentication
method to authentificate ourself, the other peer may use PSK or RSA.
- Changed retransmission policy to respect the keyingtries parameter.
- Added private key decryption. PEM keys encrypted with AES-128/192/256
or 3DES are supported.
- Implemented DES/3DES algorithms in libstrongswan. 3DES can be used to
encrypt IKE traffic.
- Implemented SHA-256/384/512 in libstrongswan, allows usage of certificates
signed with such a hash algorithm.
- Added initial support for updown scripts. The actions up-host/client and
down-host/client are executed. The leftfirewall=yes parameter
uses the default updown script to insert dynamic firewall rules, a custom
updown script may be specified with the leftupdown parameter.
- Added support for the auto=route ipsec.conf parameter and the
ipsec route/unroute commands for IKEv2. This allows to set up IKE_SAs and
CHILD_SAs dynamically on demand when traffic is detected by the
- Added support for rekeying IKE_SAs in IKEv2 using the ikelifetime parameter.
As specified in IKEv2, no reauthentication is done (unlike in IKEv1), only
new keys are generated using perfect forward secrecy. An optional flag
which enforces reauthentication will be implemented later.
- "sha" and "sha1" are now treated as synonyms in the ike= and esp=
algorithm configuration statements.
- Full X.509 certificate trust chain verification has been implemented.
End entity certificates can be exchanged via CERT payloads. The current
default is leftsendcert=always, since CERTREQ payloads are not supported
yet. Optional CRLs must be imported locally into /etc/ipsec.d/crls.
- Added support for leftprotoport/rightprotoport parameters in IKEv2. IKEv2
would offer more possibilities for traffic selection, but the Linux kernel
currently does not support it. That's why we stick with these simple
ipsec.conf rules for now.
- Added Dead Peer Detection (DPD) which checks liveliness of remote peer if no
IKE or ESP traffic is received. DPD is currently hardcoded (dpdaction=clear,
- Initial NAT traversal support in IKEv2. Charon includes NAT detection
notify payloads to detect NAT routers between the peers. It switches
to port 4500, uses UDP encapsulated ESP packets, handles peer address
changes gracefully and sends keep alive message periodically.
- Reimplemented IKE_SA state machine for charon, which allows simultaneous
rekeying, more shared code, cleaner design, proper retransmission
and a more extensible code base.
- The mixed PSK/RSA roadwarrior detection capability introduced by the
strongswan-2.7.0 release necessitated the pre-parsing of the IKE proposal
payloads by the responder right before any defined IKE Main Mode state had
been established. Although any form of bad proposal syntax was being correctly
detected by the payload parser, the subsequent error handler didn't check
the state pointer before logging current state information, causing an
immediate crash of the pluto keying daemon due to a NULL pointer.
- Added algorithm selection to charon: New default algorithms for
ike=aes128-sha-modp2048, as both daemons support it. The default
for IPsec SAs is now esp=aes128-sha,3des-md5. charon handles
the ike/esp parameter the same way as pluto. As this syntax does
not allow specification of a pseudo random function, the same
algorithm as for integrity is used (currently sha/md5). Supported
algorithms for IKE:
Encryption: aes128, aes192, aes256
Integrity/PRF: md5, sha (using hmac)
DH-Groups: modp768, 1024, 1536, 2048, 4096, 8192
and for ESP:
Encryption: aes128, aes192, aes256, 3des, blowfish128,
blowfish192, blowfish256
Integrity: md5, sha1
More IKE encryption algorithms will come after porting libcrypto into
- initial support for rekeying CHILD_SAs using IKEv2. Currently no
perfect forward secrecy is used. The rekeying parameters rekey,
rekeymargin, rekeyfuzz and keylife from ipsec.conf are now supported
when using IKEv2. WARNING: charon currently is unable to handle
simultaneous rekeying. To avoid such a situation, use a large
rekeyfuzz, or even better, set rekey=no on one peer.
- support for host2host, net2net, host2net (roadwarrior) tunnels
using predefined RSA certificates (see uml scenarios for
configuration examples).
- new build environment featuring autotools. Features such
as HTTP, LDAP and smartcard support may be enabled using
the ./configure script. Changing install directories
is possible, too. See ./configure --help for more details.
- better integration of charon with ipsec starter, which allows
(almost) transparent operation with both daemons. charon
handles ipsec commands up, down, status, statusall, listall,
listcerts and allows proper load, reload and delete of connections
via ipsec starter.
- initial support of the IKEv2 protocol. Connections in
ipsec.conf designated by keyexchange=ikev2 are negotiated
by the new IKEv2 charon keying daemon whereas those marked
by keyexchange=ikev1 or the default keyexchange=ike are
handled thy the IKEv1 pluto keying daemon. Currently only
a limited subset of functions are available with IKEv2
(Default AES encryption, authentication based on locally
imported X.509 certificates, unencrypted private RSA keys
in PKCS#1 file format, limited functionality of the ipsec
status command).
- the dynamic iptables rules from the _updown_x509 template
for KLIPS and the _updown_policy template for NETKEY have
been merged into the default _updown script. The existing
left|rightfirewall keyword causes the automatic insertion
and deletion of ACCEPT rules for tunneled traffic upon
the successful setup and teardown of an IPsec SA, respectively.
left|rightfirwall can be used with KLIPS under any Linux 2.4
kernel or with NETKEY under a Linux kernel version >= 2.6.16
in conjunction with iptables >= 1.3.5. For NETKEY under a Linux
kernel version < 2.6.16 which does not support IPsec policy
matching yet, please continue to use a copy of the _updown_espmark
template loaded via the left|rightupdown keyword.
- a new left|righthostaccess keyword has been introduced which
can be used in conjunction with left|rightfirewall and the
default _updown script. By default leftfirewall=yes inserts
a bi-directional iptables FORWARD rule for a local client network
with a netmask different from (single host).
This does not allow to access the VPN gateway host via its
internal network interface which is part of the client subnet
because an iptables INPUT and OUTPUT rule would be required.
lefthostaccess=yes will cause this additional ACCEPT rules to
be inserted.
- mixed PSK|RSA roadwarriors are now supported. The ISAKMP proposal
payload is preparsed in order to find out whether the roadwarrior
requests PSK or RSA so that a matching connection candidate can
be found.
- the new _updown_policy template allows ipsec policy based
iptables firewall rules. Required are iptables version
>= 1.3.5 and linux kernel >= 2.6.16. This script obsoletes
the _updown_espmark template, so that no INPUT mangle rules
are required any more.
- added support of DPD restart mode
- ipsec starter now allows the use of wildcards in include
statements as e.g. in "include /etc/my_ipsec/*.conf".
Patch courtesy of Matthias Haas.
- the Netscape OID 'employeeNumber' is now recognized and can be
used as a Relative Distinguished Name in certificates.
- /etc/init.d/ipsec or /etc/rc.d/ipsec is now a copy of the ipsec
command and not of ipsec setup any more.
- ipsec starter now supports AH authentication in conjunction with
ESP encryption. AH authentication is configured in ipsec.conf
via the auth=ah parameter.
- The command ipsec scencrypt|scdecrypt <args> is now an alias for
ipsec whack --scencrypt|scdecrypt <args>.
- get_sa_info() now determines for the native netkey IPsec stack
the exact time of the last use of an active eroute. This information
is used by the Dead Peer Detection algorithm and is also displayed by
the ipsec status command.
- running under the native Linux 2.6 IPsec stack, the function
get_sa_info() is called by ipsec auto --status to display the current
number of transmitted bytes per IPsec SA.
- get_sa_info() is also used by the Dead Peer Detection process to detect
recent ESP activity. If ESP traffic was received from the peer within
the last dpd_delay interval then no R_Y_THERE notification must be sent.
- strongSwan now supports the Relative Distinguished Name "unstructuredName"
in ID_DER_ASN1_DN identities. The following notations are possible:
rightid="unstructuredName=John Doe"
rightid="UN=John Doe"
- fixed a long-standing bug which caused PSK-based roadwarrior connections
to segfault in the function id.c:same_id() called by keys.c:get_secret()
if an FQDN, USER_FQDN, or Key ID was defined, as in the following example.
conn rw
- the ipsec command now supports most ipsec auto commands (e.g. ipsec listall).
- ipsec starter didn't set host_addr and client.addr ports in whack msg.
- in order to guarantee backwards-compatibility with the script-based
auto function (e.g. auto --replace), the ipsec starter scripts stores
the defaultroute information in the temporary file /var/run/
- The compile-time option USE_XAUTH_VID enables the sending of the XAUTH
Vendor ID which is expected by Cisco PIX 7 boxes that act as IKE Mode Config
- the ipsec starter now also recognizes the parameters authby=never and
- ipsec starter now supports the also parameter which allows
a modular structure of the connection definitions. Thus
"ipsec start" is now ready to replace "ipsec setup".
- Mathieu Lafon's popular ipsec starter tool has been added to the
strongSwan distribution. Many thanks go to Stephan Scholz from astaro
for his integration work. ipsec starter is a C program which is going
to replace the various shell and awk starter scripts (setup, _plutoload,
_plutostart, _realsetup, _startklips, _confread, and auto). Since
ipsec.conf is now parsed only once, the starting of multiple tunnels is
accelerated tremedously.
- Added support of %defaultroute to the ipsec starter. If the IP address
changes, a HUP signal to the ipsec starter will automatically
reload pluto's connections.
- moved most compile time configurations from pluto/Makefile to by defining the options USE_LIBCURL, USE_LDAP,
- removed the ipsec verify and ipsec newhostkey commands
- fixed some 64-bit issues in formatted print statements
- The scepclient functionality implementing the Simple Certificate
Enrollment Protocol (SCEP) is nearly complete but hasn't been
documented yet.
- CA certicates are now automatically loaded from a smartcard
or USB crypto token and appear in the ipsec auto --listcacerts
- when using "ipsec whack --scencrypt <data>" with a PKCS#11
library that does not support the C_Encrypt() Cryptoki
function (e.g. OpenSC), the RSA encryption is done in
software using the public key fetched from the smartcard.
- The scepclient function now allows to define the
validity of a self-signed certificate using the --days,
--startdate, and --enddate options. The default validity
has been changed from one year to five years.
- the config setup parameter pkcs11proxy=yes opens pluto's PKCS#11
interface to other applications for RSA encryption and decryption
via the whack interface. Notation:
ipsec whack --scencrypt <data>
[--inbase 16|hex|64|base64|256|text|ascii]
[--outbase 16|hex|64|base64|256|text|ascii]
[--keyid <keyid>]
ipsec whack --scdecrypt <data>
[--inbase 16|hex|64|base64|256|text|ascii]
[--outbase 16|hex|64|base64|256|text|ascii]
[--keyid <keyid>]
The default setting for inbase and outbase is hex.
The new proxy interface can be used for securing symmetric
encryption keys required by the cryptoloop or dm-crypt
disk encryption schemes, especially in the case when
pkcs11keepstate=yes causes pluto to lock the pkcs11 slot
- if the file /etc/ipsec.secrets is lacking during the startup of
pluto then the root-readable file /etc/ipsec.d/private/myKey.der
containing a 2048 bit RSA private key and a matching self-signed
certificate stored in the file /etc/ipsec.d/certs/selfCert.der
is automatically generated by calling the function
ipsec scepclient --out pkcs1 --out cert-self
scepclient was written by Jan Hutter and Martin Willi, students
at the University of Applied Sciences in Rapperswil, Switzerland.
- the current extension of the PKCS#7 framework introduced
a parsing error in PKCS#7 wrapped X.509 certificates that are
e.g. transmitted by Windows XP when multi-level CAs are used.
the parsing syntax has been fixed.
- added a patch by Gerald Richter which tolerates multiple occurrences
of the ipsec0 interface when using KLIPS.
- with gawk-3.1.4 the word "default2 has become a protected
keyword for use in switch statements and cannot be used any
more in the strongSwan scripts. This problem has been
solved by renaming "default" to "defaults" and "setdefault"
in the scripts _confread and auto, respectively.
- introduced the parameter leftsendcert with the values
always|yes (the default, always send a cert)
ifasked (send the cert only upon a cert request)
never|no (never send a cert, used for raw RSA keys and
self-signed certs)
- fixed the initialization of the ESP key length to a default of
128 bits in the case that the peer does not send a key length
attribute for AES encryption.
- applied Herbert Xu's uniqueIDs patch
- applied Herbert Xu's CLOEXEC patches
- CRLs can now be cached also in the case when the issuer's
certificate does not contain a subjectKeyIdentifier field.
In that case the subjectKeyIdentifier is computed by pluto as the
160 bit SHA-1 hash of the issuer's public key in compliance
with section of RFC 3280.
- Fixed a bug introduced by strongswan-2.5.1 which eliminated
not only multiple Quick Modes of a given connection but also
multiple connections between two security gateways.
- Under the native IPsec of the Linux 2.6 kernel, a %trap eroute
installed either by setting auto=route in ipsec.conf or by
a connection put into hold, generates an XFRM_AQUIRE event
for each packet that wants to use the not-yet exisiting
tunnel. Up to now each XFRM_AQUIRE event led to an entry in
the Quick Mode queue, causing multiple IPsec SA to be
established in rapid succession. Starting with strongswan-2.5.1
only a single IPsec SA is established per host-pair connection.
- Right after loading the PKCS#11 module, all smartcard slots are
searched for certificates. The result can be viewed using
the command
ipsec auto --listcards
The certificate objects found in the slots are numbered
starting with #1, #2, etc. This position number can be used to address
certificates (leftcert=%smartcard) and keys (: PIN %smartcard)
in ipsec.conf and ipsec.secrets, respectively:
%smartcard (selects object #1)
%smartcard#1 (selects object #1)
%smartcard#3 (selects object #3)
As an alternative the existing retrieval scheme can be used:
%smartcard:45 (selects object with id=45)
%smartcard0 (selects first object in slot 0)
%smartcard4:45 (selects object in slot 4 with id=45)
- Depending on the settings of CKA_SIGN and CKA_DECRYPT
private key flags either C_Sign() or C_Decrypt() is used
to generate a signature.
- The output buffer length parameter siglen in C_Sign()
is now initialized to the actual size of the output
buffer prior to the function call. This fixes the
CKR_BUFFER_TOO_SMALL error that could occur when using
the OpenSC PKCS#11 module.
- Changed the initialization of the PKCS#11 CK_MECHANISM in
C_SignInit() to mech = { CKM_RSA_PKCS, NULL_PTR, 0 }.
- Refactored the RSA public/private key code and transferred it
from keys.c to the new pkcs1.c file as a preparatory step
towards the release of the SCEP client.
- The loading of a PKCS#11 smartcard library module during
runtime does not require OpenSC library functions any more
because the corresponding code has been integrated into
smartcard.c. Also the RSAREF pkcs11 header files have been
included in a newly created pluto/rsaref directory so that
no external include path has to be defined any longer.
- A long-awaited feature has been implemented at last:
The local caching of CRLs fetched via HTTP or LDAP, activated
by the parameter cachecrls=yes in the config setup section
of ipsec.conf. The dynamically fetched CRLs are stored under
a unique file name containing the issuer's subjectKeyID
in /etc/ipsec.d/crls.
- Applied a one-line patch courtesy of Michael Richardson
from the Openswan project which fixes the kernel-oops
in KLIPS when an snmp daemon is running on the same box.
- Eliminated null length CRL distribution point strings.
- Fixed a trust path evaluation bug introduced with 2.4.3
- Improved the joint OCSP / CRL revocation policy.
OCSP responses have precedence over CRL entries.
- Introduced support of CRLv2 reason codes.
- Fixed a bug with key-pad equipped readers which caused
pluto to prompt for the pin via the console when the first
occasion to enter the pin via the key-pad was missed.
- When pluto is built with LDAP_V3 enabled, the library
liblber required by newer versions of openldap is now
- Added the _updown_espmark template which requires all
incoming ESP traffic to be marked with a default mark
value of 50.
- Introduced the pkcs11keepstate parameter in the config setup
section of ipsec.conf. With pkcs11keepstate=yes the PKCS#11
session and login states are kept as long as possible during
the lifetime of pluto. This means that a PIN entry via a key
pad has to be done only once.
- Introduced the pkcs11module parameter in the config setup
section of ipsec.conf which specifies the PKCS#11 module
to be used with smart cards. Example:
- Added support of smartcard readers equipped with a PIN pad.
- Added patch by Jay Pfeifer which detects when netkey
modules have been statically built into the Linux 2.6 kernel.
- Added two patches by Herbert Xu. The first uses ip xfrm
instead of setkey to flush the IPsec policy database. The
second sets the optional flag in inbound IPComp SAs only.
- Applied Ulrich Weber's patch which fixes an interoperability
problem between native IPsec and KLIPS systems caused by
setting the replay window to 32 instead of 0 for ipcomp.
- Fixed a bug which caused an unwanted Mode Config request
to be initiated in the case where "right" was used to denote
the local side in ipsec.conf and "left" the remote side,
contrary to the recommendation that "right" be remote and
"left" be"local".
- updated Vendor ID to strongSwan-2.4.0
- updated copyright statement to include David Buechi and
Michael Meier
- strongSwan now communicates with attached smartcards and
USB crypto tokens via the standardized PKCS #11 interface.
By default the OpenSC library from is used
but any other PKCS#11 library could be dynamically linked.
strongSwan's PKCS#11 API was implemented by David Buechi
and Michael Meier, both graduates of the Zurich University
of Applied Sciences in Winterthur, Switzerland.
- When a %trap eroute is triggered by an outgoing IP packet
then the native IPsec stack of the Linux 2.6 kernel [often/
always?] returns an XFRM_ACQUIRE message with an undefined
protocol family field and the connection setup fails.
As a workaround IPv4 (AF_INET) is now assumed.
- the results of the UML test scenarios are now enhanced
with block diagrams of the virtual network topology used
in a particular test.
- fixed IV used to decrypt informational messages.
This bug was introduced with Mode Config functionality.
- fixed NCP Vendor ID.
- undid one of Ulrich Weber's maximum udp size patches
because it caused a segmentation fault with NAT-ed
Delete SA messages.
- added UML scenarios wildcards and attr-cert which
demonstrate the implementation of IPsec policies based
on wildcard parameters contained in Distinguished Names and
on X.509 attribute certificates, respectively.
- Added basic Mode Config functionality
- Added Mathieu Lafon's patch which upgrades the status of
the NAT-Traversal implementation to RFC 3947.
- The _startklips script now also loads the xfrm4_tunnel
- Added Ulrich Weber's netlink replay window size and
maximum udp size patches.
- UML testing now uses the Linux 2.6.10 UML kernel by default.
- Eric Marchionni and Patrik Rayo, both recent graduates from
the Zuercher Hochschule Winterthur in Switzerland, created a
User-Mode-Linux test setup for strongSwan. For more details
please read the INSTALL and README documents in the testing
- Full support of group attributes based on X.509 attribute
certificates. Attribute certificates can be generated
using the openac facility. For more details see
man ipsec_openac.
The group attributes can be used in connection definitions
in order to give IPsec access to specific user groups.
This is done with the new parameter left|rightgroups as in
rightgroups="Research, Sales"
giving access to users possessing the group attributes
Research or Sales, only.
- In Quick Mode clients with subnet mask /32 are now
coded as IP_V4_ADDRESS or IP_V6_ADDRESS. This should
fix rekeying problems with the SafeNet/SoftRemote and NCP
Secure Entry Clients.
- Changed the defaults of the ikelifetime and keylife parameters
to 3h and 1h, respectively. The maximum allowable values are
now both set to 24 h.
- Suppressed notification wars between two IPsec peers that
could e.g. be triggered by incorrect ISAKMP encryption.
- Public RSA keys can now have identical IDs if either the
issuing CA or the serial number is different. The serial
number of a certificate is now shown by the command
ipsec auto --listpubkeys
- Added Tuomo Soini's sourceip feature which allows a strongSwan
roadwarrior to use a fixed Virtual IP (see README section 2.6)
and reduces the well-known four tunnel case on VPN gateways to
a single tunnel definition (see README section 2.4).
- Fixed a bug occurring with NAT-Traversal enabled when the responder
suddenly turns initiator and the initiator cannot find a matching
connection because of the floated IKE port 4500.
- Removed misleading ipsec verify command from barf.
- Running under the native IP stack, ipsec --version now shows
the Linux kernel version (courtesy to the Openswan project).
- Introduced the ipsec auto --listalgs monitoring command which lists
all currently registered IKE and ESP algorithms.
- Fixed a bug in the ESP algorithm selection occurring when the strict flag
is set and the first proposed transform does not match.
- Fixed another deadlock in the use of the lock_certs_and_keys() mutex,
occurring when a smartcard is present.
- Prevented that a superseded Phase1 state can trigger a DPD_TIMEOUT event.
- Fixed the printing of the notification names (null)
- Applied another of Herbert Xu's Netlink patches.
- Support of Dead Peer Detection. The connection parameter
activates DPD for the given connection.
- The default Opportunistic Encryption (OE) policy groups are not
automatically included anymore. Those wishing to activate OE can include
the policy group with the following statement in ipsec.conf:
include /etc/ipsec.d/examples/oe.conf
The default for [right|left]rsasigkey is now set to %cert.
- strongSwan now has a Vendor ID of its own which can be activated
using the compile option VENDORID
- Applied Herbert Xu's patch which sets the compression algorithm correctly.
- Applied Herbert Xu's patch fixing an ESPINUDP problem
- Applied Herbert Xu's patch setting source/destination port numbers.
- Reapplied one of Herbert Xu's NAT-Traversal patches which got
lost during the migration from SuperFreeS/WAN.
- Fixed a deadlock in the use of the lock_certs_and_keys() mutex.
- Fixed the unsharing of alg parameters when instantiating group
- Thomas Walpuski made me aware of a potential DoS attack via
a PKCS#7-wrapped certificate bundle which could overwrite valid CA
certificates in Pluto's authority certificate store. This vulnerability
was fixed by establishing trust in CA candidate certificates up to a
trusted root CA prior to insertion into Pluto's chained list.
- replaced the --assign option by the -v option in the auto awk script
in order to make it run with mawk under debian/woody.
- Split of the status information between ipsec auto --status (concise)
and ipsec auto --statusall (verbose). Both commands can be used with
an optional connection selector:
ipsec auto --status[all] <connection_name>
- Added the description of X.509 related features to the ipsec_auto(8)
man page.
- Hardened the ASN.1 parser in debug mode, especially the printing
of malformed distinguished names.
- The size of an RSA public key received in a certificate is now restricted to
512 bits <= modulus length <= 8192 bits.
- Fixed the debug mode enumeration.
- Fixed another PKCS#7 vulnerability which could lead to an
endless loop while following the X.509 trust chain.
- Fixed the PKCS#7 vulnerability discovered by Thomas Walpuski
that accepted end certificates having identical issuer and subject
distinguished names in a multi-tier X.509 trust chain.
- Removed all remaining references to ipsec_netlink.h in KLIPS.
- The new "ca" section allows to define the following parameters:
ca kool
cacert=koolCA.pem # cacert of kool CA
ocspuri= # ocsp server # default ldap server
crluri= # crl distribution point
crluri2="ldap:///O=Kool, C= .." # crl distribution point #2
auto=add # add, ignore
The ca definitions can be monitored via the command
ipsec auto --listcainfos
- Fixed cosmetic corruption of /proc filesystem by integrating
D. Hugh Redelmeier's freeswan-2.06 kernel fixes.
- Added support for the 818043 NAT-Traversal update of Microsoft's
Windows 2000/XP IPsec client which sends an ID_FQDN during Quick Mode.
- A symbolic link to libcrypto is now added in the kernel sources
during kernel compilation
- Fixed a couple of 64 bit issues (mostly casts to int).
Thanks to Ken Bantoft who checked my sources on a 64 bit platform.
- Replaced s[n]printf() statements in the kernel by ipsec_snprintf().
Credits go to D. Hugh Redelmeier, Michael Richardson, and Sam Sgro
of the FreeS/WAN team who solved this problem with the 2.4.25 kernel.
- an empty ASN.1 SEQUENCE OF or SET OF object (e.g. a subjectAltName
certificate extension which contains no generalName item) can cause
a pluto crash. This bug has been fixed. Additionally the ASN.1 parser has
been hardened to make it more robust against malformed ASN.1 objects.
- applied Herbert Xu's NAT-T patches which fixes NAT-T under the native
Linux 2.6 IPsec stack.
- based on freeswan-2.04, x509-1.5.3, nat-0.6c, alg-0.8.1rc12