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2007-08-08 08:17:48 +00:00
- the --enable-integrity-test configure option tests the
integrity of the libstrongswan crypto code during the charon
- ipsec stroke now supports the rereadsecrets, rereadaacerts,
rereadacerts, and listacerts options.
2007-08-08 08:17:48 +00:00
2007-08-06 12:02:12 +00:00
- If a DNS lookup failure occurs when resolving right=%<FQDN>
or right=<FQDN> combined with rightallowany=yes then the
connection is not updated by ipsec starter thus preventing
the disruption of an active IPsec connection. Only if the DNS
lookup successfully returns with a changed IP address the
corresponding connection definition is updated.
2007-08-07 06:48:48 +00:00
- Routes installed by the keying daemons are now in a separate
routing table with the ID 100 to avoid conflicts with the main
table. Route lookup for IKEv2 traffic is done in userspace to ignore
routes installed for IPsec, as IKE traffic shouldn't get encapsulated.
2007-08-06 12:02:12 +00:00
- The pluto IKEv1 daemon now exhibits the same behaviour as its
IKEv2 companion charon by inserting an explicit route via the
_updown script only if a sourceip exists. This is admissible
since routing through the IPsec tunnel is handled automatically
by NETKEY's IPsec policies. As a consequence the left|rightnexthop
parameter is not required any more.
2007-06-20 09:46:54 +00:00
- The new IKEv1 parameter right|leftallowany parameters helps to handle
the case where both peers possess dynamic IP addresses that are
usually resolved using DynDNS or a similar service. The configuration
can be used by the initiator to start up a connection to a peer
by resolving into the currently allocated IP address.
Thanks to the rightallowany flag the connection behaves later on
so that the peer can rekey the connection as an initiator when his
2007-06-27 13:31:16 +00:00
IP address changes. An alternative notation is
which will implicitly set rightallowany=yes.
- ipsec starter now fails more gracefully in the presence of parsing
errors. Flawed ca and conn section are discarded and pluto is started
if non-fatal errors only were encountered. If
cannot be resolved by DNS then right=%any will be used so that passive
connections as a responder are still possible.
2007-06-20 09:46:54 +00:00
- The new pkcs11initargs parameter that can be placed in the
setup config section of /etc/ipsec.conf allows the definition
of an argument string that is used with the PKCS#11 C_Initialize()
function. This non-standard feature is required by the NSS softoken
library. This patch was contributed by Robert Varga.
- Fixed a bug in ipsec starter introduced by strongswan-2.8.5
which caused a segmentation fault in the presence of unknown
or misspelt keywords in ipsec.conf. This bug fix was contributed
by Robert Varga.
2007-07-02 12:55:43 +00:00
- Partial support for MOBIKE in IKEv2. The initiator acts on interface/
address configuration changes and updates IKE and IPsec SAs dynamically.
2007-07-02 17:56:04 +00:00
2007-05-15 19:07:38 +00:00
- IKEv2 peer configuration selection now can be based on a given
2007-05-18 12:28:05 +00:00
certification authority using the rightca= statement.
- IKEv2 authentication based on RSA signatures now can handle multiple
certificates issued for a given peer ID. This allows a smooth transition
in the case of a peer certificate renewal.
2007-05-15 19:07:38 +00:00
2007-05-25 11:06:03 +00:00
- IKEv2: Support for requesting a specific virtual IP using leftsourceip on the
client and returning requested virtual IPs using rightsourceip=%config
on the server. If the server does not support configuration payloads, the
client enforces its leftsourceip parameter.
- The ./configure options --with-uid/--with-gid allow pluto and charon
to drop their privileges to a minimum and change to an other UID/GID. This
improves the systems security, as a possible intruder may only get the
CAP_NET_ADMIN capability.
- Further modularization of charon: Pluggable control interface and
configuration backend modules provide extensibility. The control interface
for stroke is included, and further interfaces using DBUS (NetworkManager)
or XML are on the way. A backend for storing configurations in the daemon
is provided and more advanced backends (using e.g. a database) are trivial
to implement.
2007-05-15 19:07:38 +00:00
- Fixed a compilation failure in libfreeswan occuring with Linux kernel
headers > 2.6.17.
2007-04-27 17:31:50 +00:00
- Support for an additional Diffie-Hellman exchange when creating/rekeying
2007-04-26 06:33:03 +00:00
a CHILD_SA in IKEv2 (PFS). PFS is enabled when the proposal contains a
DH group (e.g. "esp=aes128-sha1-modp1536"). Further, DH group negotiation
is implemented properly for rekeying.
- Support for the AES-XCBC-96 MAC algorithm for IPsec SAs when using IKEv2
(requires linux >= 2.6.20). It is enabled using e.g. "esp=aes256-aesxcbc".
2007-04-26 07:58:50 +00:00
- Working IPv4-in-IPv6 and IPv6-in-IPv4 tunnels for linux >= 2.6.21.
2007-04-26 06:33:03 +00:00
- Added support for EAP modules which do not establish an MSK.
- Removed the dependencies from the /usr/include/linux/ headers by
including xfrm.h, ipsec.h, and pfkeyv2.h in the distribution.
- crlNumber is now listed by ipsec listcrls
- The xauth_modules.verify_secret() function now passes the
connection name.
2007-04-27 17:31:50 +00:00
2007-03-30 12:49:19 +00:00
- Server side cookie support. If to may IKE_SAs are in CONNECTING state,
cookies are enabled and protect against DoS attacks with faked source
addresses. Number of IKE_SAs in CONNECTING state is also limited per
peer address to avoid resource exhaustion. IKE_SA_INIT messages are
compared to properly detect retransmissions and incoming retransmits are
detected even if the IKE_SA is blocked (e.g. doing OCSP fetches).
2007-04-06 09:51:04 +00:00
- The IKEv2 daemon charon now supports dynamic http- and ldap-based CRL
fetching enabled by crlcheckinterval > 0 and caching fetched CRLs
enabled by cachecrls=yes.
2007-04-03 12:41:37 +00:00
- Added the configuration options --enable-nat-transport which enables
the potentially insecure NAT traversal for IPsec transport mode and
--disable-vendor-id which disables the sending of the strongSwan
vendor ID.
- Fixed a long-standing bug in the pluto IKEv1 daemon which caused
a segmentation fault if a malformed payload was detected in the
IKE MR2 message and pluto tried to send an encrypted notification
2007-04-05 17:44:50 +00:00
- Added the NATT_IETF_02_N Vendor ID in order to support IKEv1 connections
with Windows 2003 Server which uses a wrong VID hash.
2007-04-03 12:41:37 +00:00
2007-03-15 14:28:47 +00:00
2007-02-21 13:07:39 +00:00
- Support of SHA2_384 hash function for protecting IKEv1
negotiations and support of SHA2 signatures in X.509 certificates.
- Fixed a serious bug in the computation of the SHA2-512 HMAC
function. Introduced automatic self-test of all IKEv1 hash
and hmac functions during pluto startup. Failure of a self-test
currently issues a warning only but does not exit pluto [yet].
2007-03-20 08:59:03 +00:00
- Support for SHA2-256/384/512 PRF and HMAC functions in IKEv2.
2007-02-25 08:18:11 +00:00
- Full support of CA information sections. ipsec listcainfos
now shows all collected crlDistributionPoints and OCSP
2007-03-20 10:47:00 +00:00
- Support of the Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) for IKEv2.
This feature requires the HTTP fetching capabilities of the libcurl
library which must be enabled by setting the --enable-http configure
2007-03-20 08:59:03 +00:00
- Refactored core of the IKEv2 message processing code, allowing better
code reuse and separation.
- Virtual IP support in IKEv2 using INTERNAL_IP4/6_ADDRESS configuration
payload. Additionally, the INTERNAL_IP4/6_DNS attribute is interpreted
by the requestor and installed in a resolv.conf file.
- The IKEv2 daemon charon installs a route for each IPsec policy to use
the correct source address even if an application does not explicitly
specify it.
- Integrated the EAP framework into charon which loads pluggable EAP library
modules. The ipsec.conf parameter authby=eap initiates EAP authentication
on the client side, while the "eap" parameter on the server side defines
the EAP method to use for client authentication.
A generic client side EAP-Identity module and an EAP-SIM authentication
module using a third party card reader implementation are included.
- Added client side support for cookies.
- Integrated the fixes done at the IKEv2 interoperability bakeoff, including
strict payload order, correct INVALID_KE_PAYLOAD rejection and other minor
fixes to enhance interoperability with other implementations.
2007-02-21 13:07:39 +00:00
2007-04-27 17:31:50 +00:00
2007-01-25 19:39:50 +00:00
2007-01-29 07:46:09 +00:00
- strongSwan now interoperates with the NCP Secure Entry Client,
the Shrew Soft VPN Client, and the Cisco VPN client, doing both
XAUTH and Mode Config.
2007-01-25 19:39:50 +00:00
- UNITY attributes are now recognized and UNITY_BANNER is set
to a default string.
2007-01-04 14:32:48 +00:00
- IKEv1: Support for extended authentication (XAUTH) in combination
with ISAKMP Main Mode RSA or PSK authentication. Both client and
server side were implemented. Handling of user credentials can
be done by a run-time loadable XAUTH module. By default user
credentials are stored in ipsec.secrets.
- IKEv2: Support for reauthentication when rekeying
2007-01-08 07:36:53 +00:00
- IKEv2: Support for transport mode
2007-01-03 13:16:21 +00:00
2007-01-08 07:36:53 +00:00
- fixed a lot of bugs related to byte order
2007-01-08 07:36:53 +00:00
- various other bugfixes
2006-11-01 11:28:09 +00:00
- IKEv1: Implementation of ModeConfig push mode via the new connection
keyword modeconfig=push allows interoperability with Cisco VPN gateways.
- IKEv1: The command ipsec statusall now shows "DPD active" for all
ISAKMP SAs that are under active Dead Peer Detection control.
- IKEv2: Charon's logging and debugging framework has been completely rewritten.
Instead of logger, special printf() functions are used to directly
print objects like hosts (%H) identifications (%D), certificates (%Q),
etc. The number of debugging levels have been reduced to:
2006-11-01 11:28:09 +00:00
0 (audit), 1 (control), 2 (controlmore), 3 (raw), 4 (private)
2006-11-01 11:28:09 +00:00
The debugging levels can either be specified statically in ipsec.conf as
config setup
charondebug="lib 1, cfg 3, net 2"
2006-11-01 11:28:09 +00:00
or changed at runtime via stroke as
2006-11-01 11:28:09 +00:00
ipsec stroke loglevel cfg 2
2006-11-01 11:28:09 +00:00
- Implemented full support for IPv6-in-IPv6 tunnels.
- Added configuration options for dead peer detection in IKEv2. dpd_action
types "clear", "hold" and "restart" are supported. The dpd_timeout
value is not used, as the normal retransmission policy applies to
detect dead peers. The dpd_delay parameter enables sending of empty
informational message to detect dead peers in case of inactivity.
- Added support for preshared keys in IKEv2. PSK keys configured in
ipsec.secrets are loaded. The authby parameter specifies the authentication
method to authentificate ourself, the other peer may use PSK or RSA.
- Changed retransmission policy to respect the keyingtries parameter.
- Added private key decryption. PEM keys encrypted with AES-128/192/256
or 3DES are supported.
- Implemented DES/3DES algorithms in libstrongswan. 3DES can be used to
encrypt IKE traffic.
- Implemented SHA-256/384/512 in libstrongswan, allows usage of certificates
signed with such a hash algorithm.
- Added initial support for updown scripts. The actions up-host/client and
down-host/client are executed. The leftfirewall=yes parameter
uses the default updown script to insert dynamic firewall rules, a custom
updown script may be specified with the leftupdown parameter.
2006-08-23 11:48:33 +00:00
- Added support for the auto=route ipsec.conf parameter and the
ipsec route/unroute commands for IKEv2. This allows to set up IKE_SAs and
CHILD_SAs dynamically on demand when traffic is detected by the
- Added support for rekeying IKE_SAs in IKEv2 using the ikelifetime parameter.
As specified in IKEv2, no reauthentication is done (unlike in IKEv1), only
new keys are generated using perfect forward secrecy. An optional flag
which enforces reauthentication will be implemented later.
- "sha" and "sha1" are now treated as synonyms in the ike= and esp=
algorithm configuration statements.
2006-07-14 11:51:45 +00:00
- Full X.509 certificate trust chain verification has been implemented.
End entity certificates can be exchanged via CERT payloads. The current
default is leftsendcert=always, since CERTREQ payloads are not supported
yet. Optional CRLs must be imported locally into /etc/ipsec.d/crls.
2006-07-05 14:13:45 +00:00
- Added support for leftprotoport/rightprotoport parameters in IKEv2. IKEv2
would offer more possibilities for traffic selection, but the Linux kernel
currently does not support it. That's why we stick with these simple
ipsec.conf rules for now.
- Added Dead Peer Detection (DPD) which checks liveliness of remote peer if no
IKE or ESP traffic is received. DPD is currently hardcoded (dpdaction=clear,
2006-07-05 14:13:45 +00:00
- Initial NAT traversal support in IKEv2. Charon includes NAT detection
notify payloads to detect NAT routers between the peers. It switches
to port 4500, uses UDP encapsulated ESP packets, handles peer address
changes gracefully and sends keep alive message periodically.
- Reimplemented IKE_SA state machine for charon, which allows simultaneous
rekeying, more shared code, cleaner design, proper retransmission
and a more extensible code base.
2006-06-27 07:07:44 +00:00
- The mixed PSK/RSA roadwarrior detection capability introduced by the
strongswan-2.7.0 release necessitated the pre-parsing of the IKE proposal
payloads by the responder right before any defined IKE Main Mode state had
been established. Although any form of bad proposal syntax was being correctly
detected by the payload parser, the subsequent error handler didn't check
the state pointer before logging current state information, causing an
immediate crash of the pluto keying daemon due to a NULL pointer.
2006-07-14 11:51:45 +00:00
2006-06-21 12:11:29 +00:00
2006-06-15 13:23:06 +00:00
- Added algorithm selection to charon: New default algorithms for
ike=aes128-sha-modp2048, as both daemons support it. The default
for IPsec SAs is now esp=aes128-sha,3des-md5. charon handles
the ike/esp parameter the same way as pluto. As this syntax does
not allow specification of a pseudo random function, the same
algorithm as for integrity is used (currently sha/md5). Supported
algorithms for IKE:
Encryption: aes128, aes192, aes256
Integrity/PRF: md5, sha (using hmac)
DH-Groups: modp768, 1024, 1536, 2048, 4096, 8192
and for ESP:
Encryption: aes128, aes192, aes256, 3des, blowfish128,
blowfish192, blowfish256
Integrity: md5, sha1
More IKE encryption algorithms will come after porting libcrypto into
2006-06-15 13:23:06 +00:00
- initial support for rekeying CHILD_SAs using IKEv2. Currently no
perfect forward secrecy is used. The rekeying parameters rekey,
2006-06-13 10:00:19 +00:00
rekeymargin, rekeyfuzz and keylife from ipsec.conf are now supported
2006-06-15 13:23:06 +00:00
when using IKEv2. WARNING: charon currently is unable to handle
simultaneous rekeying. To avoid such a situation, use a large
rekeyfuzz, or even better, set rekey=no on one peer.
2006-06-13 10:00:19 +00:00
2006-06-21 12:11:29 +00:00
- support for host2host, net2net, host2net (roadwarrior) tunnels
using predefined RSA certificates (see uml scenarios for
configuration examples).
- new build environment featuring autotools. Features such
as HTTP, LDAP and smartcard support may be enabled using
the ./configure script. Changing install directories
is possible, too. See ./configure --help for more details.
2006-06-13 10:00:19 +00:00
- better integration of charon with ipsec starter, which allows
(almost) transparent operation with both daemons. charon
handles ipsec commands up, down, status, statusall, listall,
listcerts and allows proper load, reload and delete of connections
via ipsec starter.
- initial support of the IKEv2 protocol. Connections in
ipsec.conf designated by keyexchange=ikev2 are negotiated
by the new IKEv2 charon keying daemon whereas those marked
by keyexchange=ikev1 or the default keyexchange=ike are
handled thy the IKEv1 pluto keying daemon. Currently only
a limited subset of functions are available with IKEv2
(Default AES encryption, authentication based on locally
imported X.509 certificates, unencrypted private RSA keys
in PKCS#1 file format, limited functionality of the ipsec
status command).
- the dynamic iptables rules from the _updown_x509 template
for KLIPS and the _updown_policy template for NETKEY have
been merged into the default _updown script. The existing
left|rightfirewall keyword causes the automatic insertion
and deletion of ACCEPT rules for tunneled traffic upon
the successful setup and teardown of an IPsec SA, respectively.
left|rightfirwall can be used with KLIPS under any Linux 2.4
kernel or with NETKEY under a Linux kernel version >= 2.6.16
in conjuction with iptables >= 1.3.5. For NETKEY under a Linux
kernel version < 2.6.16 which does not support IPsec policy
matching yet, please continue to use a copy of the _updown_espmark
template loaded via the left|rightupdown keyword.
- a new left|righthostaccess keyword has been introduced which
can be used in conjunction with left|rightfirewall and the
default _updown script. By default leftfirewall=yes inserts
a bi-directional iptables FORWARD rule for a local client network
with a netmask different from (single host).
This does not allow to access the VPN gateway host via its
internal network interface which is part of the client subnet
because an iptables INPUT and OUTPUT rule would be required.
lefthostaccess=yes will cause this additional ACCEPT rules to
be inserted.
- mixed PSK|RSA roadwarriors are now supported. The ISAKMP proposal
payload is preparsed in order to find out whether the roadwarrior
requests PSK or RSA so that a matching connection candidate can
be found.
- the new _updown_policy template allows ipsec policy based
iptables firewall rules. Required are iptables version
>= 1.3.5 and linux kernel >= 2.6.16. This script obsoletes
the _updown_espmark template, so that no INPUT mangle rules
are required any more.
- added support of DPD restart mode
- ipsec starter now allows the use of wildcards in include
statements as e.g. in "include /etc/my_ipsec/*.conf".
Patch courtesy of Matthias Haas.
- the Netscape OID 'employeeNumber' is now recognized and can be
used as a Relative Distinguished Name in certificates.
- /etc/init.d/ipsec or /etc/rc.d/ipsec is now a copy of the ipsec
command and not of ipsec setup any more.
- ipsec starter now supports AH authentication in conjunction with
ESP encryption. AH authentication is configured in ipsec.conf
via the auth=ah parameter.
- The command ipsec scencrypt|scdecrypt <args> is now an alias for
ipsec whack --scencrypt|scdecrypt <args>.
- get_sa_info() now determines for the native netkey IPsec stack
the exact time of the last use of an active eroute. This information
is used by the Dead Peer Detection algorithm and is also displayed by
the ipsec status command.
- running under the native Linux 2.6 IPsec stack, the function
get_sa_info() is called by ipsec auto --status to display the current
number of transmitted bytes per IPsec SA.
- get_sa_info() is also used by the Dead Peer Detection process to detect
recent ESP activity. If ESP traffic was received from the peer within
the last dpd_delay interval then no R_Y_THERE notification must be sent.
- strongSwan now supports the Relative Distinguished Name "unstructuredName"
in ID_DER_ASN1_DN identities. The following notations are possible:
rightid="unstructuredName=John Doe"
rightid="UN=John Doe"
- fixed a long-standing bug which caused PSK-based roadwarrior connections
to segfault in the function id.c:same_id() called by keys.c:get_secret()
if an FQDN, USER_FQDN, or Key ID was defined, as in the following example.
conn rw
- the ipsec command now supports most ipsec auto commands (e.g. ipsec listall).
- ipsec starter didn't set host_addr and client.addr ports in whack msg.
- in order to guarantee backwards-compatibility with the script-based
auto function (e.g. auto --replace), the ipsec starter scripts stores
the defaultroute information in the temporary file /var/run/
- The compile-time option USE_XAUTH_VID enables the sending of the XAUTH
Vendor ID which is expected by Cisco PIX 7 boxes that act as IKE Mode Config
- the ipsec starter now also recognizes the parameters authby=never and
- ipsec starter now supports the also parameter which allows
a modular structure of the connection definitions. Thus
"ipsec start" is now ready to replace "ipsec setup".
- Mathieu Lafon's popular ipsec starter tool has been added to the
strongSwan distribution. Many thanks go to Stephan Scholz from astaro
for his integration work. ipsec starter is a C program which is going
to replace the various shell and awk starter scripts (setup, _plutoload,
_plutostart, _realsetup, _startklips, _confread, and auto). Since
ipsec.conf is now parsed only once, the starting of multiple tunnels is
accelerated tremedously.
- Added support of %defaultroute to the ipsec starter. If the IP address
changes, a HUP signal to the ipsec starter will automatically
reload pluto's connections.
- moved most compile time configurations from pluto/Makefile to by defining the options USE_LIBCURL, USE_LDAP,
- removed the ipsec verify and ipsec newhostkey commands
- fixed some 64-bit issues in formatted print statements
- The scepclient functionality implementing the Simple Certificate
Enrollment Protocol (SCEP) is nearly complete but hasn't been
documented yet.
- CA certicates are now automatically loaded from a smartcard
or USB crypto token and appear in the ipsec auto --listcacerts
- when using "ipsec whack --scencrypt <data>" with a PKCS#11
library that does not support the C_Encrypt() Cryptoki
function (e.g. OpenSC), the RSA encryption is done in
software using the public key fetched from the smartcard.
- The scepclient function now allows to define the
validity of a self-signed certificate using the --days,
--startdate, and --enddate options. The default validity
has been changed from one year to five years.
- the config setup parameter pkcs11proxy=yes opens pluto's PKCS#11
interface to other applications for RSA encryption and decryption
via the whack interface. Notation:
ipsec whack --scencrypt <data>
[--inbase 16|hex|64|base64|256|text|ascii]
[--outbase 16|hex|64|base64|256|text|ascii]
[--keyid <keyid>]
ipsec whack --scdecrypt <data>
[--inbase 16|hex|64|base64|256|text|ascii]
[--outbase 16|hex|64|base64|256|text|ascii]
[--keyid <keyid>]
The default setting for inbase and outbase is hex.
The new proxy interface can be used for securing symmetric
encryption keys required by the cryptoloop or dm-crypt
disk encryption schemes, especially in the case when
pkcs11keepstate=yes causes pluto to lock the pkcs11 slot
- if the file /etc/ipsec.secrets is lacking during the startup of
pluto then the root-readable file /etc/ipsec.d/private/myKey.der
containing a 2048 bit RSA private key and a matching self-signed
certificate stored in the file /etc/ipsec.d/certs/selfCert.der
is automatically generated by calling the function
ipsec scepclient --out pkcs1 --out cert-self
scepclient was written by Jan Hutter and Martin Willi, students
at the University of Applied Sciences in Rapperswil, Switzerland.
- the current extension of the PKCS#7 framework introduced
a parsing error in PKCS#7 wrapped X.509 certificates that are
e.g. transmitted by Windows XP when multi-level CAs are used.
the parsing syntax has been fixed.
- added a patch by Gerald Richter which tolerates multiple occurrences
of the ipsec0 interface when using KLIPS.
- with gawk-3.1.4 the word "default2 has become a protected
keyword for use in switch statements and cannot be used any
more in the strongSwan scripts. This problem has been
solved by renaming "default" to "defaults" and "setdefault"
in the scripts _confread and auto, respectively.
- introduced the parameter leftsendcert with the values
always|yes (the default, always send a cert)
ifasked (send the cert only upon a cert request)
never|no (never send a cert, used for raw RSA keys and
self-signed certs)
- fixed the initialization of the ESP key length to a default of
128 bits in the case that the peer does not send a key length
attribute for AES encryption.
- applied Herbert Xu's uniqueIDs patch
- applied Herbert Xu's CLOEXEC patches
- CRLs can now be cached also in the case when the issuer's
certificate does not contain a subjectKeyIdentifier field.
In that case the subjectKeyIdentifier is computed by pluto as the
160 bit SHA-1 hash of the issuer's public key in compliance
with section of RFC 3280.
- Fixed a bug introduced by strongswan-2.5.1 which eliminated
not only multiple Quick Modes of a given connection but also
multiple connections between two security gateways.
- Under the native IPsec of the Linux 2.6 kernel, a %trap eroute
installed either by setting auto=route in ipsec.conf or by
a connection put into hold, generates an XFRM_AQUIRE event
for each packet that wants to use the not-yet exisiting
tunnel. Up to now each XFRM_AQUIRE event led to an entry in
the Quick Mode queue, causing multiple IPsec SA to be
established in rapid succession. Starting with strongswan-2.5.1
only a single IPsec SA is established per host-pair connection.
- Right after loading the PKCS#11 module, all smartcard slots are
searched for certificates. The result can be viewed using
the command
ipsec auto --listcards
The certificate objects found in the slots are numbered
starting with #1, #2, etc. This position number can be used to address
certificates (leftcert=%smartcard) and keys (: PIN %smartcard)
in ipsec.conf and ipsec.secrets, respectively:
%smartcard (selects object #1)
%smartcard#1 (selects object #1)
%smartcard#3 (selects object #3)
As an alternative the existing retrieval scheme can be used:
%smartcard:45 (selects object with id=45)
%smartcard0 (selects first object in slot 0)
%smartcard4:45 (selects object in slot 4 with id=45)
- Depending on the settings of CKA_SIGN and CKA_DECRYPT
private key flags either C_Sign() or C_Decrypt() is used
to generate a signature.
- The output buffer length parameter siglen in C_Sign()
is now initialized to the actual size of the output
buffer prior to the function call. This fixes the
CKR_BUFFER_TOO_SMALL error that could occur when using
the OpenSC PKCS#11 module.
- Changed the initialization of the PKCS#11 CK_MECHANISM in
C_SignInit() to mech = { CKM_RSA_PKCS, NULL_PTR, 0 }.
- Refactored the RSA public/private key code and transferred it
from keys.c to the new pkcs1.c file as a preparatory step
towards the release of the SCEP client.
- The loading of a PKCS#11 smartcard library module during
runtime does not require OpenSC library functions any more
because the corresponding code has been integrated into
smartcard.c. Also the RSAREF pkcs11 header files have been
included in a newly created pluto/rsaref directory so that
no external include path has to be defined any longer.
- A long-awaited feature has been implemented at last:
The local caching of CRLs fetched via HTTP or LDAP, activated
by the parameter cachecrls=yes in the config setup section
of ipsec.conf. The dynamically fetched CRLs are stored under
a unique file name containing the issuer's subjectKeyID
in /etc/ipsec.d/crls.
- Applied a one-line patch courtesy of Michael Richardson
from the Openswan project which fixes the kernel-oops
in KLIPS when an snmp daemon is running on the same box.
- Eliminated null length CRL distribution point strings.
- Fixed a trust path evaluation bug introduced with 2.4.3
- Improved the joint OCSP / CRL revocation policy.
OCSP responses have precedence over CRL entries.
- Introduced support of CRLv2 reason codes.
- Fixed a bug with key-pad equipped readers which caused
pluto to prompt for the pin via the console when the first
occasion to enter the pin via the key-pad was missed.
- When pluto is built with LDAP_V3 enabled, the library
liblber required by newer versions of openldap is now
- Added the _updown_espmark template which requires all
incoming ESP traffic to be marked with a default mark
value of 50.
- Introduced the pkcs11keepstate parameter in the config setup
section of ipsec.conf. With pkcs11keepstate=yes the PKCS#11
session and login states are kept as long as possible during
the lifetime of pluto. This means that a PIN entry via a key
pad has to be done only once.
- Introduced the pkcs11module parameter in the config setup
section of ipsec.conf which specifies the PKCS#11 module
to be used with smart cards. Example:
- Added support of smartcard readers equipped with a PIN pad.
- Added patch by Jay Pfeifer which detects when netkey
modules have been statically built into the Linux 2.6 kernel.
- Added two patches by Herbert Xu. The first uses ip xfrm
instead of setkey to flush the IPsec policy database. The
second sets the optional flag in inbound IPComp SAs only.
- Applied Ulrich Weber's patch which fixes an interoperability
problem between native IPsec and KLIPS systems caused by
setting the replay window to 32 instead of 0 for ipcomp.
- Fixed a bug which caused an unwanted Mode Config request
to be initiated in the case where "right" was used to denote
the local side in ipsec.conf and "left" the remote side,
contrary to the recommendation that "right" be remote and
"left" be"local".
- updated Vendor ID to strongSwan-2.4.0
- updated copyright statement to include David Buechi and
Michael Meier
- strongSwan now communicates with attached smartcards and
USB crypto tokens via the standardized PKCS #11 interface.
By default the OpenSC library from is used
but any other PKCS#11 library could be dynamically linked.
strongSwan's PKCS#11 API was implemented by David Buechi
and Michael Meier, both graduates of the Zurich University
of Applied Sciences in Winterthur, Switzerland.
- When a %trap eroute is triggered by an outgoing IP packet
then the native IPsec stack of the Linux 2.6 kernel [often/
always?] returns an XFRM_ACQUIRE message with an undefined
protocol family field and the connection setup fails.
As a workaround IPv4 (AF_INET) is now assumed.
- the results of the UML test scenarios are now enhanced
with block diagrams of the virtual network topology used
in a particular test.
- fixed IV used to decrypt informational messages.
This bug was introduced with Mode Config functionality.
- fixed NCP Vendor ID.
- undid one of Ulrich Weber's maximum udp size patches
because it caused a segmentation fault with NAT-ed
Delete SA messages.
- added UML scenarios wildcards and attr-cert which
demonstrate the implementation of IPsec policies based
on wildcard parameters contained in Distinguished Names and
on X.509 attribute certificates, respectively.
- Added basic Mode Config functionality
- Added Mathieu Lafon's patch which upgrades the status of
the NAT-Traversal implementation to RFC 3947.
- The _startklips script now also loads the xfrm4_tunnel
- Added Ulrich Weber's netlink replay window size and
maximum udp size patches.
- UML testing now uses the Linux 2.6.10 UML kernel by default.
- Eric Marchionni and Patrik Rayo, both recent graduates from
the Zuercher Hochschule Winterthur in Switzerland, created a
User-Mode-Linux test setup for strongSwan. For more details
please read the INSTALL and README documents in the testing
- Full support of group attributes based on X.509 attribute
certificates. Attribute certificates can be generated
using the openac facility. For more details see
man ipsec_openac.
The group attributes can be used in connection definitions
in order to give IPsec access to specific user groups.
This is done with the new parameter left|rightgroups as in
rightgroups="Research, Sales"
giving access to users possessing the group attributes
Research or Sales, only.
- In Quick Mode clients with subnet mask /32 are now
coded as IP_V4_ADDRESS or IP_V6_ADDRESS. This should
fix rekeying problems with the SafeNet/SoftRemote and NCP
Secure Entry Clients.
- Changed the defaults of the ikelifetime and keylife parameters
to 3h and 1h, respectively. The maximum allowable values are
now both set to 24 h.
- Suppressed notification wars between two IPsec peers that
could e.g. be triggered by incorrect ISAKMP encryption.
- Public RSA keys can now have identical IDs if either the
issuing CA or the serial number is different. The serial
number of a certificate is now shown by the command
ipsec auto --listpubkeys
- Added Tuomo Soini's sourceip feature which allows a strongSwan
roadwarrior to use a fixed Virtual IP (see README section 2.6)
and reduces the well-known four tunnel case on VPN gateways to
a single tunnel definition (see README section 2.4).
- Fixed a bug occuring with NAT-Traversal enabled when the responder
suddenly turns initiator and the initiator cannot find a matching
connection because of the floated IKE port 4500.
- Removed misleading ipsec verify command from barf.
- Running under the native IP stack, ipsec --version now shows
the Linux kernel version (courtesy to the Openswan project).
- Introduced the ipsec auto --listalgs monitoring command which lists
all currently registered IKE and ESP algorithms.
- Fixed a bug in the ESP algorithm selection occuring when the strict flag
is set and the first proposed transform does not match.
- Fixed another deadlock in the use of the lock_certs_and_keys() mutex,
occuring when a smartcard is present.
- Prevented that a superseded Phase1 state can trigger a DPD_TIMEOUT event.
- Fixed the printing of the notification names (null)
- Applied another of Herbert Xu's Netlink patches.
- Support of Dead Peer Detection. The connection parameter
activates DPD for the given connection.
- The default Opportunistic Encryption (OE) policy groups are not
automatically included anymore. Those wishing to activate OE can include
the policy group with the following statement in ipsec.conf:
include /etc/ipsec.d/examples/oe.conf
The default for [right|left]rsasigkey is now set to %cert.
- strongSwan now has a Vendor ID of its own which can be activated
using the compile option VENDORID
- Applied Herbert Xu's patch which sets the compression algorithm correctly.
- Applied Herbert Xu's patch fixing an ESPINUDP problem
- Applied Herbert Xu's patch setting source/destination port numbers.
- Reapplied one of Herbert Xu's NAT-Traversal patches which got
lost during the migration from SuperFreeS/WAN.
- Fixed a deadlock in the use of the lock_certs_and_keys() mutex.
- Fixed the unsharing of alg parameters when instantiating group
- Thomas Walpuski made me aware of a potential DoS attack via
a PKCS#7-wrapped certificate bundle which could overwrite valid CA
certificates in Pluto's authority certificate store. This vulnerability
was fixed by establishing trust in CA candidate certificates up to a
trusted root CA prior to insertion into Pluto's chained list.
- replaced the --assign option by the -v option in the auto awk script
in order to make it run with mawk under debian/woody.
- Split of the status information between ipsec auto --status (concise)
and ipsec auto --statusall (verbose). Both commands can be used with
an optional connection selector:
ipsec auto --status[all] <connection_name>
- Added the description of X.509 related features to the ipsec_auto(8)
man page.
- Hardened the ASN.1 parser in debug mode, especially the printing
of malformed distinguished names.
- The size of an RSA public key received in a certificate is now restricted to
512 bits <= modulus length <= 8192 bits.
- Fixed the debug mode enumeration.
- Fixed another PKCS#7 vulnerability which could lead to an
endless loop while following the X.509 trust chain.
- Fixed the PKCS#7 vulnerability discovered by Thomas Walpuski
that accepted end certificates having identical issuer and subject
distinguished names in a multi-tier X.509 trust chain.
- Removed all remaining references to ipsec_netlink.h in KLIPS.
- The new "ca" section allows to define the following parameters:
ca kool
cacert=koolCA.pem # cacert of kool CA
ocspuri= # ocsp server # default ldap server
crluri= # crl distribution point
crluri2="ldap:///O=Kool, C= .." # crl distribution point #2
auto=add # add, ignore
The ca definitions can be monitored via the command
ipsec auto --listcainfos
- Fixed cosmetic corruption of /proc filesystem by integrating
D. Hugh Redelmeier's freeswan-2.06 kernel fixes.
- Added support for the 818043 NAT-Traversal update of Microsoft's
Windows 2000/XP IPsec client which sends an ID_FQDN during Quick Mode.
- A symbolic link to libcrypto is now added in the kernel sources
during kernel compilation
- Fixed a couple of 64 bit issues (mostly casts to int).
Thanks to Ken Bantoft who checked my sources on a 64 bit platform.
- Replaced s[n]printf() statements in the kernel by ipsec_snprintf().
Credits go to D. Hugh Redelmeier, Michael Richardson, and Sam Sgro
of the FreeS/WAN team who solved this problem with the 2.4.25 kernel.
- an empty ASN.1 SEQUENCE OF or SET OF object (e.g. a subjectAltName
certificate extension which contains no generalName item) can cause
a pluto crash. This bug has been fixed. Additionally the ASN.1 parser has
been hardened to make it more robust against malformed ASN.1 objects.
- applied Herbert Xu's NAT-T patches which fixes NAT-T under the native
Linux 2.6 IPsec stack.
- based on freeswan-2.04, x509-1.5.3, nat-0.6c, alg-0.8.1rc12